10 September 2001:
Note: This page is still under construction and not yet "officially" on line:
please be patient.
21 October 2001: now that I've finished my two pages on Afghanistan, I am resuming work on Croatia -- it'll take another week or two to complete this page --
again, please be patient.

MYTH*ING LINKS
An Annotated & Illustrated Collection of Worldwide Links to Mythologies,
Fairy Tales & Folklore, Sacred Arts & Sacred Traditions
by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.

GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS

CENTRAL & EASTERN EUROPE:


CROATIA
[Also see my page on Hungary / Transylvania, since many issues I raise here initially began on that page.
Further, see the Central & Eastern Europe Portal Page --
it has significant links to the whole region, especially two that explore the historical reasons
behind the West's tragic dismembering of this region.]


Croatia
Taken from CIA map and exhaustive fact sheet
by Matt Rosenberg, Geography guide at about.com.
[For additional contemporary maps, with brief fact sheets, see:
Lonely Planet, Merriam-Webster's Atlas, and Infoplease -- also see below under General Info];
for historical maps, see the Croatian History Museum's Map Collection, including the Map of Illyria (1669)
and the Austrian Empire, 1847 (the first map to be printed in the Croatian language).


"Praying Jesus"
Copyright © by Croatian artist, Vladimir Bašic-Šoto (1953 - )

Note: Sunday, 21 October 2001, 8:30am:

I stayed up til just after 5am (PDT) the morning of 11 September 2001 because I was working intensely on this new Croatian page, especially its opening essay about "Praying Jesus."  I was falling asleep, still immersed in the Balkans, as the first of the planes was crashing into the Twin Towers (5:48am PDT).  I wouldn't learn of this until I woke around noon and began checking my e-mails.

The image of "Praying Jesus" was still swimming through my nerves.  Although my thoughts from those pre-dawn hours reflect a perspective I still hold deeply (see below), in the face of so much sudden tragedy in my own country, this same painting suddenly seemed the most appropriate container for my own shock and grief.  Knowing it might also help others, I added a Gaelic Blessing and put it online that same day as New York City: 11 September 2001.

I have not return to this Croatian page since then.  I have  been working instead on pages related to the tragedy.  Now, however, those are complete, at least for now, and it's time to return to where I left off.  Unfortunately, the Balkans too are part of the larger picture of  world terrorism.......

11 September 2001, 2am --
Author's Note:
For nearly a month I have been immersed in grokking dozens of links for Hungary and Romania as well as for my portal page for Central & Eastern Europe.  In a sense, this has been a depressing task because of all the many "folk histories," lies, claims and counter-claims, and reports of atrocities so rife in the region.

I refuse to take sides, for taking one side over another means dehumanizing and demonizing the neglected side.  The tragedy of this is all too evident in Catholic Croatia vs. Orthodox Serbia.  Both are Christian.  Both are currently mortal enemies.  What would their Jesus say?  Would he weep? -- would he rage? -- would he overturn their marketplaces, their weapons caches?

I don't know -- nor, in a sense, do I really care.  I am angry with him.  He should have known his followers would eventually run amuck.  If all of time's loops co-exist simultaneously, as many mystics claim, then Jesus really should have consulted Carl Jung before incarnating, for Jung could have told him that his atrocious death would swamp any message he might have.  Humans love drama.  Horrible death is a great, epic drama.  Thus there are churches worldwide filled with x-rated graphic depictions of his crucifixion.

A clear contrast is the Buddha -- experts do know the details of his death when he was very old, but for most of us, the focus is on his teachings, not his death.  Perhaps the Buddha spoke with Jung beforehand, I don't know.  I do know that Christianity's focus is more on death than life, and this has blighted the past 2000+ years.

When I first saw Vladimir Bašic-Šoto's painting, "Praying Jesus," I didn't intend to put it on this page.  I downloaded it, but then I download hundreds of images and most never appear on my website.  This one, however, haunted me.  Why?  It's because of the artist's chosen title, "Praying Jesus."  In looking at the image, what I see is that even when Jesus prayed, the psychic "field," if you will, was already filled with the agony of his future cross.  He could never escape that future.  The more he prayed, the more that transcendent realm became inscendent -- i.e., locked into his personal destiny pattern, inside, re-patterning the outside, regardless of what could otherwise have happened.  I find this chilling and heartbreaking.  It makes me want to reach out to him, to comfort, to suggest a saner way.  But then these male heroes rarely listen to women.  He was death-patterned.

Some might say this was God's will.  I would call it "child abuse," for Jesus was marked with this sacrificial pattern from the moment he was born.  Such tragedy constellates never-ending pain, and we find this played out in all the lands touched by Christianity -- and certainly in the ceaseless contemporary agony between Croats and Serbs.

For what?  Both sides believe in this "Praying Jesus."  Can they not lovingly, compassionately, soothe the "field" around him, the horror around him, by finding ways of reconciliation, restoration, reparation?

It is with this in mind that I begin my Croatian page, for there is much here of beauty, of future promise, as well as of past wisdom and strength.  The inscendent holds joy as well as the balancing element of death, not a premature violent death, but a natural, earthy, timely, kindly death.


CROATIAN PRE-HISTORY
Tri-part Vessel
(Early Bronze Age, 2500 BCE)
From Sarvas, near Osijek
[see map above]
[Used with the kind permission of Croatia Net]
http://www.archaeology.net/prehistory/index.html
This is the introductory page to "Prehistoric Archaeology in Croatia," a marvelous joint venture from Archaeology Net and Croatia Net.  Here is the opening statement situating the geographical region covered:
Although the title is Prehistoric Archaeology in Croatia, the region covered on this web site is composed of what are today the countries of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina (abbr. "BiH" onward), which, in a sense, make up one geographical unit. This was the homeland of the Illyrian tribes, and even later, when these tribes no longer existed, the region was occasionally called Illyria....
The well-designed, illustrated page offers brief descriptions of its linked pages to the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages (see below).
http://www.archaeology.net/prehistory/stone.html
This is the Old Stone Age period from Archaeology/Croatia Nets.  It looks at excavations from c. 100,000 years ago, especially at a cave site in northwestern Croatia where a group of ten to twenty Neanderthal people lived.  These have been dubbed Krapina Man (named for a nearby town):
...Krapina Man was apparently a cannibal, for human bones which had been burned and split lengthwise, probably to extract marrow, were discovered around the walls of the cave....
To call a people "cannibals" tends to arouse strong aversion in moderns.  I wish to note that the term need not imply that these people normally used humans as a food source.  In the absence of evidence for burial practices, this could have been a means of showing profound respect for recently deceased relatives -- a communion meal, if you will (a practice continued to this day in many Christian churches, although the "body" is in the outer forms of bread and wine).

The page includes photos of stone tools and an artist's reconstruction of scenes of Krapina Man's daily life.  Other excavations from the same period are also summarized, including one site where the prehistoric group may have practiced rituals honoring bears.

http://www.arch.cam.ac.uk/DEPT/Research/Projects/Pupicina.html
From Cambridge University in the UK comes an archaeological report on excavations from the Late Upper Paleolithic (c. 10,600 BP) to the Bronze Age (c. 3300 BP) at Pupicina Cave in Croatia.  The team's aims are as follows:
This 5-year project (1995--1999) of systematic excavation and testing of limestone caves is investigating variability and change in hunter-gatherer strategies in southeastern Europe from the end of the last ice age to the appearance of farming communities (approximately 13,000--6,000 years Before Present). The primary objectives of the project are to document Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic cultures in the northern Adriatic region (Istria Peninsula, Republic of Croatia) and to situate these activities and strategies in their paleoenvironmental and cultural contexts....
The findings are quite interesting.  In Late Upper Paleolithic times remains of food were "mostly bones of red deer, pig, and roe deer" -- visits to the cave seem to have been brief, perhaps depending upon the weather.  But --
...Dramatic increases in the density of lithic artifacts and food waste in the early postglacial (c. 10,000--9,000 BP) suggest that people started to visit the cave more frequently and for longer periods of time.
These Mesolithic occupants wanted more variety than deer and pigs afforded so they began adding badgers, hares, and other small animals; they also ate large numbers of land-snails, and many marine shellfish --
...that would have been moved over 20 kilometres from the coast....  Several human finger and toe bones were also found among the animal food refuse in the Mesolithic middens....
(Note: the report does not speculate on those human bones.  If these people were "cannibals," however, one would expect a mixture of many types of human bones.  Since only finger and toe bones were found, that suggests to me that some of the fiercer small mammals -- e.g., wild pigs or even badgers, who are known for their ferocity -- might have bitten off such digits from their hunters and swallowed them before they were captured.)

For several thousand years afterwards, the cave went unused.  Then Neolithic times again showed some occupation, which became more intensive during the Bronze Age.

...The final use of the cave (starting during or after the Bronze Age) is that of domestic animal pen, as indicated by widespread lenses of ash and fine charcoal particles that appear to have formed from burning animal dung across much of the cave surface....
I wish the page offered photos, but such reports rarely do.  Regardless, the text, despite its dry, technical tone, opens a valuable window upon a remote age.
http://www.archaeology.net/prehistory/stone2.html
Again from Arahaeology/Croatia Nets is this unillustrated page on several New Stone Age cultures, including the Starcevo Culture:
...[It] is generally accepted that this culture began in the sixth millennium and ended some time around 4200 BC. ....
Also briefly covered are the Lengyel Culture, Bosnia's Butmir Culture (famous for its artistic "idols" -- I would have loved it if photos had been included), and the Hvar (which I found the most intriguing, to say nothing of tantalizing):
...Late Neolithic sites on the Adriatic were excavated on the islands, on the coast, and also inland in Herzegovina. Best known among them is the Grabac Cave on Hvar Island -- the Hvar Culture.... Some of the pottery was painted with cinnabar-red paint which gave the pottery a lustrous appearance. This is a unique discovery (no similar cases reported) since the paint used is a mercury-based poison, and was possibly used in religious or sacrificial rites. In general the pottery is similar to that of the Dimini Culture of Greece. The Hvar Culture shows some relationship and similarities with the cultures of Sicily, Crete, Macedonia, Malta, and Sardinia....
(For more on the island of Hvar, including a map, photos and minimal history dating from the arrival of Greek colonists in 384-385 B.C.E., see: http://pubwww.st.carnet.hr/hvar/.)

Vessel from Vucedol Culture (found in Vucedol near Vukovar, Croatia)
Early Bronze Age, 2500 BCE
[Used with the kind permission of Croatia Net]

http://www.archaeology.net/prehistory/bronze.html
...Continuing, this page begins with the Vucedol and Ljubljana Cultures of the Early Bronze Age:
...Men and women were buried in the same grave, which may or may not indicate that the widow had to follow her husband to death. Graves were in cellars or cellar-like pits, and pots with food were laid beside the dead. The Vucedol and Ljubljana Cultures moved southward and their elements have been found in BiH, Sandzak region, Montenegro, Croatian Dalmatia and on some of the Adriatic islands. Finally, it seems the culture crossed the Adriatic and at least partly formed the base from which the fully developed Bronze Age Apennine Culture in Italy originated....
Then it moves to a Bosnian culture of the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1600-1250 B.C.E.):
 [T]he Tumulus or Glasinac Culture...lived in the area of Glasinac (east of Sarajevo), but their traces have also been found in other areas of BiH. Tumuli or mounds were erected over graves and each contains at lest one burial. It is interesting that no weapons have been found in the graves of this period....

(A Late Bronze Age earthenware vessel from Dalj near Osijek, Croatia 700 BCE)
[Used with the kind permission of Croatia Net]

It concludes with the Late Bronze Age:
This was the period...of great population movements.... This culture cremated their dead, sometimes together with the jewelry and weapons, and placed the remains in urns....
The page is well-illustrated with photos of six images (three are on my page to whet your interest), each carefully identified.
http://jfa-www.bu.edu/Abstracts/F/Forenbaher_21_3.html
To give you an idea of the kind of work going on in this region, here is a short (unillustrated) abstract from Staso Forenbaher: "The Late Copper Age Architecture at Vucedol, Croatia."  It comes from the Journal of Field Archaeology 21 (1994) 307--323.  Here is the opening, which clarifies why the Vucedol Culture (see above) is so significant:
Sociocultural and economic transformations in SE Central Europe during the Late Copper Age decisively affected the course of the European Bronze Age. Few settlement sites, which could provide an insight into these changes, have survived the millennia of intensive agriculture well. Even fewer have been systematically and extensively excavated. The excavations at Vucedol, Croatia, brought to light extensive and diverse remains of a Late Copper Age settlement dating from the late 4th and early 3rd millennia B.C. ....

Iron Age Japodian bronze cap (500 BCE)
[Used with the kind permission of Croatia Net]
http://www.archaeology.net/prehistory/iron.html
Returning to Archaeology/Croatia Nets, this is the Iron Age, a period running, in this region, from c. 700 BCE until the Romans arrived.  During this time, the highest level is reached in Bosnia's Glasinac Culture (see above for their Middle Bronze Age period when no weapons were found in their graves):
...In the beginning only weapons and tools were made of iron. The so called "princely" burials, where the tribal chiefs were buried were extremely rich, containing bronze vessels imported from Italy and possibly from the Near East. Some contained broken swords and horse trappings....
Other cultures are also included on this page, for example:
...In Donja Dolina, at first, urn burials were more common, but eventually inhumation prevailed. The dead were simply placed into the ground or into the wooden coffins.  Women graves were richer than those of the men....
The generously illustrated page (eight photos of art) concludes with the Late Iron Age, when:
... the Celtic tribes expanded into the region.  Names of many Slavonian places are of Celtic origin. Glass and amber were imported in greater quantities, as were Greek helmets. Some of the previously mentioned settlements continued their development in this period. Notably, the Glasinac Culture continued till it disappeared around the mid-third century BC....  During this period in the region, cremation increased considerably....
....
Amber head, front and profile
(From the Japodian necropolis at Kompolje)
Iron Age, c. 500 BCE
[Used with the kind permission of Croatia Net]

http://jfa-www.bu.edu/Abstracts/T/ToddJ_3_3.html

[annotation tba]

CROATIAN HISTORY


Old Locked Door in Istria
Copyright © by photographer, Marin Topic

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/yutoc.html
This is "Yugoslavia -- A Country Study" from the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.  Dating from 1990, it looks at all aspects of the country, including geography, history (ancient and modern), society, economics, politics, transportation, military -- everything except the arts.  The page of interest here is the one focused directly on Croatia: "The Croats and Their Territories" -- here is the current direct link (note: sometimes these remain permanent, but the site warns that they will not; thus, if it vanishes, go to the Yugoslavia link above and scroll down to this one): http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+yu0016)

Here are several relevant excerpts from the beginning:

Most historians believe that the Croats are a purely Slavic people who probably migrated to the Balkans from the present-day Ukraine. A newer theory, however, holds that the original Croats were nomadic Sarmatians who roamed Central Asia, migrated onto the steppes around 200 B.C., and rode into Europe near the end of the fourth century A.D., possibly together with the Huns. The Sarmatian Croats, the theory holds, conquered the Slavs of northern Bohemia and southern Poland and formed a small state called White Croatia near today's Kraków. The Croats then supposedly mingled with their more numerous Slavic subjects and adopted the Slavic language, while the subjects assumed the tribal name "Croat"....

...Croatia emerged as an independent nation in 924. Tomislav (910-c. 928), a tribal leader, established himself as the first king of Croatia, ruling a domain that stretched eastward to the Danube. Croatia and Venice struggled to dominate Dalmatia as the power of Byzantium faded, and for a time the Dalmatians paid the Croats tribute to assure safe passage for their galleys through the Adriatic. After the Great Schism of 1054 split the Roman and Byzantine churches, Normans (probably with papal support) besieged Byzantine cities in Dalmatia. In 1075 a papal legate crowned Dmitrije Zvonimir (1076-89) king of Croatia.

A faction of nobles contesting the succession after the death of Zvonimir offered the Croatian throne to King László I of Hungary. In 1091 Laszlo accepted, and in 1094 he founded the Zagreb bishopric, which later became the ecclestictical center of Croatia. Another Hungarian king, Kálmán, crushed opposition after the death of Laszlo and won the crown of Dalmatia and Croatia in 1102.  The crowning of Kálmán forged a link between the Croatian and Hungarian crowns that lasted until the end of World War I. Croats have maintained for centuries that Croatia remained a sovereign state despite the voluntary union of the two crowns, but Hungarians claim that Hungary annexed Croatia outright in 1102. In either case, Hungarian culture permeated Croatia, the Croatian-Hungarian border shifted often, and at times Hungary treated Croatia as a vassal state.  Croatia, however, had its own local governor, or ban; a privileged landowning nobility; and an assembly of nobles, the Sabor....

http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect07.htm
From Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History comes "Lecture 7: Nationalism in Hungary, 1848-1867," by Steven W. Sowards, Reference Head of the Main Library at Michigan State University.  Scroll just past 1/2 way down for a section on Croatia.  Here's an excerpt continuing the theme of Croatia's special status within Hungary:
...Alone among the minorities, the South Slavic Croatians had legal, political and military resources with which to back up their complaints.  Just as Hungary claimed a special constitutional position within the Habsburg monarchy on the basis of medieval laws, Croatia claimed a similar position within Hungary.

There had been a medieval Croatian kingdom, and Croatian nobles claimed political rights, including election of their kings. When their own dynasty died out in 1102, the Croatian Diet or "Sabor" chose the Hungarian dynasty, trading away full independence for security, stability, and internal autonomy....


Exiles  (Detail)
Copyright © by Croatian artist, Vladimir Bašic-Šoto (1953 - )

http://www.heritagefilms.com/YUGOSLAVIA.html#Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia

From Heritage Films comes "A Jewish History of Yugoslavia."  The above link goes directly to the relevant sub-section, "Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia."  Excerpts (out of sequence):
...Jews arrived in Dalmatia with the Roman armies. In Solin (Salona), in the vicinity of Split (Spalato), there are remains of a Jewish cemetery of the third century. There was a Jewish community in Solin until 641, when Solin was destroyed by the Avars. During the Middle Ages, the Jews of Split and Ragusa (Dubrovnik) engaged in commerce and especially in the brokerage of the trade between Dalmatia and Italy and the Danubian countries. Under the autonomous republic which was established in Dubrovnik during the 15th century, the Jews lived in relative tranquillity. The Christian clergy, however, attempted to oppress them and succeeded in spreading blood libels in Dubrovnik  in 1502, 1622, and 1662....

The Croats, who penetrated into the N.W. Balkans in the seventh century and established a kingdom in the tenth, found there several Jewish communities.... There is little information on the Jews of Croatia from the 10th to 15th centuries. Some Jews lived in the Croatian capital Zagreb in the 13th and 14th centuries, when they had a chief entitled "magistratus Judaeorum," and a synagogue. Others settled between the Sava and Drava (Drau) and Danube rivers during the 15th century. As long as the economy of the country required the presence of the Jews, they lived there without hindrance. As soon as they were superfluous, they were persecuted and driven out. The Jews were expelled from Croatia and Slavonia in 1456. Croatia together with Hungary passed to the Hapsburgs in 1526, and no Jews lived there for the next 200 years....

http://historicaltextarchive.com/links.php?op=viewslink&sid=268
These are three scholarly links (the fourth is broken) to historical documents on Yugoslavia, with frequent and significant Croatian references.  The page was compiled by historian Don Mabry for his excellent Historical Text Archive. The first two links come from E. A. Hammel, a noted Berkeley professor with close Serbian friendships -- his second piece, especially, is filled with painful reflections on the deep-seated roots of the recent conflict between Serbs and Croats.  The third link is "On Yugoslavia, Observations from November, 1991 to August, 1992" by Valentine Smith -- here too there is great pain as the author describes war's devastation: of special significance for me was reading about what had happened to sites like Vukovar and Osijek, sites I had just finished annotating for my Croatian Pre-History section.  How much really changes when insane wars engulf a region?  I was too depressed to continue reading Smith's reports.
http://www.hr/darko/etf/etfss.html
This is"CROATIA, an Overview of its History, Culture and Science."  [annotation tba]
Famous Croatians:
http://www.hr/darko/etf/etfss.html
[annotation tba]
http://hrvati.cronet.com/famous.htm
[annotation tba]
http://pubwww.srce.hr/zuh/English/velik_e.htm
"The Great Men of Croatian Science" by Nenand Trinajstiæ.  [annotation tba]

CROATIAN MYTHOLOGY
& FOLKLORE


Misty Croatian Forest in Istria
Copyright © by photographer, Marin Topic

http://maief.ief.hr/index-eng.html
Ethnology & Folklore [annotation tba]
http://www.mzt.hr/mzt/hrv/informacije/publi/book/ethnolog.htm
Ethnology & Folklore Studies [annotation tba]

FOLK ARTS, MUSIC, DANCE,
LANGUAGE,
& CULTURAL TRADITIONS


Istria Music Maker
Copyright © by photographer, Marin Topic
"An age is known by its music" --
Croatian proverb

http://www.hr/darko/etf/et12.html
This is an essay, "Croatian Music," by Darko Zubrinic, Zagreb (1995).
[annotation tba]
http://www.troutdream.com/balkanarama/croatia.htm
Music and Folklore [annotation tba]
http://www.croatianacademy.org/croatian-language-vol25-26.htm
The following article “Croatian Language from the Eleventh Century to the Computer Age”  is an introduction to volume 25-26 (1984-85) of the Journal of Croatian Studies, dedicated to Croatian language. It was written by Karlo Mirth, Journal's Managing Editor.  [annotation tba]
http://www.croatiaemb.org/basic_facts/christmas97.htm
Christmas in Croatia.  [annotation tba]
http://www.siue.edu/COSTUMES/PLATE109CX.HTML
Regional costumes [annotation tba]
http://www.croatia.net/html/bride.html
Traditional Bridal Gowns from various regions: [annotation tba]

 CROATIAN FINE ARTS


Dance of Death
Copyright © by photographer, Marin Topic
Fresco by 15th century Croatian artist, Vincent of Kastav in St. Maria's Church near Beram

http://www.croatia.net/html/renaissance.html
Renaissance art.  [annotation tba]
http://www.croatia.net/html/romanesque.html
Romanesque art.  [annotation tba]
http://www.croatia.net/html/preromanesque.html
Pre-Romanesque art.  [annotation tba]
http://www.hr/darko/etf/art.html
Great page of art refs. & data.  [annotation tba]
http://www.mdc.hr/www-MDC-eng/4-1siteovi.html
Croatian Museums on the Internet.  [annotation tba]
http://pubwww.srce.hr/hpm/cataloge.htm
An index to the collections of the Croatian History Museum.  [annotation tba]
http://pubwww.srce.hr/hpm/indie.htm
Croatian History Museum's pictorial-montage "index."  [annotation tba]
http://pubwww.srce.hr/hpm/p0023003.htm
Croatian History Museum's Roman Lady with Lute.  [annotation tba]
http://pubwww.srce.hr/hpm/obaveng.htm
"The Year 1848 in Croatia," an exhibition from the Croatian History Museum.  [annotation tba]
http://www.hr/darko/etf/hadow1.html#age
This is "A Croatian Composer: Notes Toward the Study of Joseph Haydn" by Sir William H. Hadow (First edition in 1897, London, reprinted in 1972, New York).  [annotation tba]

GENERAL INFORMATION


Croatian Autumn in Istria
Copyright © by photographer, Marin Topic

http://www.croatia.net/
Excellent portal page to all areas of Croatian culture.  [annotation tba]
http://www.amadeus.net/home/dest/en/Regions/Europe/Croatia/Cro.htm
This is a great travel-oriented site, "Destinations," from the lively, witty, in-your-face, and always informative Lonely Planet, an organization that covers destinations around the world.  It offers a good selection of facts and figures interspersed with interesting data.  For example:
Croatia has long been regarded as one of the most beautiful parts of Europe, and despite the tragedy and horror of recent years its charms are largely intact.  Most of the areas popular with travellers emerged unscathed or have been restored since the war, but reminders of the country's painful history abound and everyone has a story to tell....

...Croats are overwhelmingly Roman Catholic, while virtually all Serbs are Eastern Orthodox. In addition to various doctrinal differences, Orthodox Christians venerate icons, let priests marry, and couldn't care less about the Pope. Thoroughly suppressed during Yugoslavia's communist period, Roman Catholicism is now making a comeback, with most churches strongly attended every Sunday. Muslims make up 1.2% of the population and Protestants 0.4%. There's a tiny Jewish population in Zagreb....

In addition to great on-line information, the site also offers a fine"Recommended Reading" section at the bottom of its page.
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107439.html
From "Infoplease" comes a fine map (click on the thumbnail) as well as unusually good fact-sheets and data on geography and history. (Note: internal fact-sheet links take you to worldwide data on ethnicity, religion, and much more.)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/country_profiles/newsid_1097000/1097128.stm
From the BBC News comes a small map and a brief but useful overview of today's Croatia.  Among the hopeful news in an Eastern Europe torn by atrocities and denial is this:
...The greatest progress has been made in Croatia's willingness to confront the darker aspects of its actions during the Bosnian war.  A number of Croatian military figures have been arrested on suspicion of involvement in massacres.  The new government has said it will cooperate with the war crimes tribunal in The Hague, something the late Tudjman refused to do.  Several army generals, who criticised the move, were subsequently ordered into retirement....
http://hrvati.cronet.com/cultures.htm
"A Land Where Cultures Meet" -- a cultural overview.  [annotation tba]
http://hrvati.cronet.com/continent.htm
A regional overview.   [annotation tba]
http://www.koprivnica.hr/english/photo_galery2.htm
This is a Photo Gallery of countryside views of Croatia -- the thumbnails are clickable for lovely enlargements.

Autumn Sunset in Istria, Croatia
Copyright © by photographer, Marin Topic

http://www.istra.com/artphoto/index.html

Entry page for Marin Topic's 60+ photos of the Istria region.  [annotation tba]
http://islands.zems.fer.hr/
A lovely site on the "thousand islands" of Croatia.  [annotation tba]
http://www.open.hr/lubenice/index.html
This is Lubenice on the island of Cres, one of the "thousand islands" of Croatia.  It is a brief page but has a link to a nice gallery of photos. [annotation tba]
http://cwr.utoronto.ca/cultural/english2/Croatia/croatiaENG.htm
This is a Croatian site from Canada with good data divided into the following subsections: Croatia; Croatia to Canada; Landscape and Climate; A Look at the Past; Spirituality; Education; Health Care; At Work in Croatia; Eating, the Croatian way; Holidays and Leisure; Folklore; Culture; Language and Literature; and "If You Want to Learn More [i.e., bibliographic resources]."

At the bottom of the page are a huge number of unidentified B&W photos that take forever to load -- plan to do a sinkful of dishes, mow the lawn, and wash the car.  When you've finished, the photos should be nearly through loading.  I'm not kidding!  The webmaster really needs to split up this page and put captions on the photos!  Still, some of the photos show lovely human faces, young and old, and some great architectural sketches -- but I have no idea what they're of.  ::sigh::

http://goeasteurope.about.com/library/travel/blt_cr.htm
This is "Croatia," an assortment of good links chosen by Bill Biega, the Russian & Eastern Europe guide at about.com.  There are many links to specific cities and regions, as well as general information and cultural links.  Here's his opening, clearly delineating the two major regions of Croatia:
Croatia consists of two quite different regions. The region, which encompasses Istria and Dalmatia, is a holiday paradise. It includes rocky mountains, a long coastline and nearly 1,000 islands in the azure Adriatic Sea. Many of the towns have been in existence for over 2,000 years and include many wonderful historic and architectural monuments. The eastern region, which also includes the capital Zagreb, is mostly agricultural....
If you find a site here on which you wish to spend some time, I'd suggest that you disable about.com's annoying top-frame (click where it says to on the far left of the "banner") -- it takes up too much space on the page and its animated ads contribute to the load-time; these links don't need the added complication of about.com's obsessive plots to hold you captive.

For another page of hand-picked Croatian links by Biega, go to: http://goeasteurope.about.com/msubcr.htm

http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/croatia_0001_bgn.html
From the US State Department in January 2000 comes this lengthy page on a wide range of background facts on Croatia.
http://ebooks.whsmithonline.co.uk/encyclopedia/79/M0036979.htm
General info, also nice photo of Hvar, from The Hutchinson Family Encyclopedia.  [annotation tba]
http://ebooks.whsmithonline.co.uk/encyclopedia/42/c0000042.htm
General info fact sheet, including chronology of historical events, from The Hutchinson Family Encyclopedia.  [annotation tba]
http://dir.yahoo.com/Regional/Countries/Croatia/
This is Yahoo's regional search page on Croatia -- the links are well chosen and cover a wide range of categories for those who like to explore topics on their own.
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This page created with Netscape Gold 3.01
Technical assistance: William Weeks
Text and Design:
Copyright © 2001 by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.

Designed 6 September 2001;
gathering images & links 8 September 2001;
began grokking 9-11 September 2001.
21 October 2001: resumed work with an opening "Note" & launched the page as is;
I'll start grokking later this week.

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