MYTH*ING LINKS
An Annotated & Illustrated Collection of Worldwide Links to Mythologies,
Fairy Tales & Folklore, Sacred Arts & Sacred Traditions
by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.

GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS:
MESO AMERICA

Mexico's
El Dia de los Muertos:
November First & Second


OFRENDA:  Day of Dead - The Offering
Fresco, 1923-1924
Diego Rivera
(I originally found a larger version of this Mexico City fresco at the
Diego Rivera Virtual Gallery, but that link is dead as of 10/07;
for newer browsers, see image 30 of 37 in the "Murals" slide show at:
http://www.diegorivera.com/murals/ [Link updated 10/30/10 -- "Ofrenda" is in 3rd row from bottom]

  http://www.peoplesguide.com/1pages/chapts/viva/dodead/1dodindex.html

[Link added 10/19/03]: From the People's Guide to Mexico comes a Dia de los Muertos site with literate, thoughtful excerpts, links to book reviews, travel diaries,and oddles of threads going in too many directions for me to follow (e.g., buying handmade ikons of the Virgin of Guadalupe, retiring to Mexico, and much more).  What caught my immediate attention were the following two excerpts from Indo-Hispanic Folk Art Traditions II by Bobbi Salinas-Norman:
What is the difference between Halloween and the Day of the Dead?  Halloween is based on a medieval European concept of death, and is populated by demons, witches (usually women) and other images of terror -- all of them negative. The Day of the Dead, in contrast, is distinctly different. It is a uniquely Indo-Hispanic custom that demonstrates strong sense of love and respect for oneís ancestors; celebrates the continuance of life, family relationships, community solidarity and even finds humor after death -- all positive concepts!
From the same author's book comes an excellent, lucid look at American (and Western) attitudes towards death versus "Indo-Hispanic" [i.e., indigenous Indian-Hispanic] attitudes:
...Children in the United States today learn about sex, gunslinging, drug dealing and other forms of corruption much earlier than their parents did (largely through television), but they learn very little about death. In some states the subject is even taboo in public school textbooks. For many, death is therefore an uncongenial intruder who can be dealt with only by calling in the police, the coroner or the mortician.
Does the Indo-Hispanic view of death, which is radically different, imply less regard for the sanctity of life? By no means. The Day of the Dead offers us the opportunity to examine this universal experience in the context of a family tradition, illuminated by the hope of an after-life. In this way, it loses some of  its terror and becomes more meaningful, even beautiful....
Set aside a good block of time if you plan to explore here....each page leads to more treasures.


Woman preparing marigolds for the "Angelitos," or dead children.
[From Inside Mexico -- see  further below]

http://www.eslpartyland.com/day-of-the-dead-resources.htm
 [Added 2 March 2012]:  On January 17th, 2012, hardly the season for El Dia de los Muertes, I was surprised to receive this enthusiastic e-mail from a young teacher, Miss Audrey, on behalf of two of her students, Erica C. and Olivia:
Hi there, Kathleen!

I just wanted to drop you a quick note to let you know that your page http://mythinglinks.org/DayOfDead.html has great info on it! The kids in my Spanish class totally agree!  Two girls in my class found your page while researching for their holiday group project.  They wanted to share another page that they really loved: http://www.eslpartyland.com/day-of-the-dead-resources.htm. It's a really fantastic guide to El Dia de Muertos, or the Day of the Dead!

I've been tutoring and subbing for awhile but am just starting in the teaching field. It seems like such a collaborative profession, which is why I was hoping you wouldn't mind adding the page the kids found to your site with all of your other valuable resources  ;)

I think it would thrill the girls to see their suggested page on your website.... I'm just so excited they're really getting into this unit!

Thanks so much, can't wait to hear back from you!

I responded that same day:
Hi Audrey -- you're right! -- it's a very interesting page & does indeed offer great data that I don't currently have. Might take a few days as I'm swamped, but I'll definitely add it to my page (and drop you a line when it's done).... You sound like a terrific teacher, btw. Would it be ok if I quote you in making comments on the new link?
Warmly,
Kathleen
She graciously gave me permission and I planned to do this within a day or two. Unfortunately, computer problems and unexpected deadlines made this impossible. Today, however, I finally found a few hours to do this.  Thus, with thanks to  Erica C., Olivia, and their fine teacher,  it is now my pleasure to introduce this page from "ESL Partyland."

Here are some excerpts -- some eloquent, others coloful and touching -- that especially caught my eye:

Humans are curious, which is why civilizations have advanced to today's technology-driven society. Death is a mystery that humans cannot solve. We cannot definitively say there is life after death, and as such, civilizations and religions have rituals and faiths to help cope with death. The early peoples of Mexico believed that death merely passed the decedent on to a new life. Today, Mexico still honors this belief, and its dead, with El Dia de Muertos, which is the Day of the Dead.

The Day of the Dead is celebrated from November 1 through November 2. The Day of the Dead is not a macabre celebration, although it might sound so. Rather, the Day of the Dead is a time when the people of Mexico stop their daily lives to celebrate their departed loved ones. They honor the people who have moved on to the after life, which is a lovely gesture, just like leaving flowers on a grave.

The Day of the Dead is a colorful celebration, and two places in Mexico are famous when it comes to celebrating their deceased: Mixquic and Janitzio. San Andres Mixquic is a small suburb of Mexico City in the borough of Tlahuac. Mixquic means "in mesquite" in English. The city of Janitzio sits on top of a hill on the Isla de Janitzio. Janitzio means "where it rains" in English, and the city can only be reached by boat.

Thousands of people go to Mixquic to celebrate the Day of the Dead annually, as the community considers it the most important celebration of the year. The community hosts both quiet and boisterous celebrations for their dead. The festivities are almost like Mardi Gras, and include plays and poetry readings, processions, concerts and dancing....

A key pre-Day of the Dead ritual is to place a large paper lantern in the shape of a star over the front doorway. Families usually do this in the middle of October, and the star remains over the door until November 3. Celebrants believe that the star lantern helps the dead find their way back home. The lanterns give the guiding light, and cempoalxochitl blooms are planted in fields surrounding Mixquic to add a specific fragrance to the air associated with the Day of the Dead....

The Day of the Dead celebrations are broken down into two days: day one is for children while day two for adults. Church bells begin ringing at midnight on October 31, representing the arrival of the departed children's souls. The morning of November 1, families place breakfast on the ofrenda for their returning children. Families also make a trail to the ofrenda using white "alheli" flowers, representing the purity of the child's soul. Deceased children are believed to visit until the middle of the day on November 1, and then it is time for the deceased adults to arrive....

The celebration in Janitzio is much the same as the celebration in Mixquic. Janitzio citizens also begin to prepare for the Day of the Dead early. Vendors flock to the city's square to sell figures, bright with color and often made of sugar, that represent death. The same bright orange cempoalxochitl flowers are sold at local markets....

The tenderness of the ceremonies is something everyone could learn from. Death might be the end of a person's life, but that does not mean the person is gone forever. The Day of the Dead brings family and friends together to remember those they have lost. That, alone, brings the dead back to life, so to speak. It could be argued that the Day of the Dead has an inaccurate name, because it really is a celebration of people's lives.

Following this are links to more fine resources, especially for ESL Students.

"In November 2001 there were special altars dedicated to those who lost their lives in the World Trade Center, many of whom were Mexican migrant workers. [This is a] special altar put up in November 2001 in Puebla's Casa de Cultura paying tribute to the Mexican workers killed in the World Trade Centre on 9/11" [See link directly below].
http://www.mexico-child-link.org/day-of-the-dead-mexico/day-of-the-dead-mexico.htm
[Added 30 October 2010]:  My LinksElf, Michaela, found this site a few weeks ago so I'm starting with her insightful comments:
I liked this link about a womanís perspective of the fusion of Christian and Indian beliefs. It has a picture of a World Trade Center altar from 2001, one of the few remembrances I have seen that (1) I donít find offensive and (2) is almost healing.
Here are several excerpts from this webpage, created by Enriqueta Palestino, ex project General Director, Fundación Trébol de Puebla:
...The celebration of the Day of the Dead represents the fusion of two races of people, Indian and European. The combination of these two cultures has shaped the modern Mexican's attitude towards death. We learn resignation through adversity and hardship, and our calmness gives us humour and defiance in the face of death itself....

The tradition of making offerings in recognition of loved ones who have died dates back to 3500 BC. For the Mesoamerican people death is seen as a transition and life and death are part of the same continuum....

The modern celebration concerns making an offering to the person who though physically absent, is still living in our memory. An altar is made in each home for the purpose of honouring the dead. Photographs and possessions of the person who has died are placed on the altar along with the other items.

Marigolds, known to us a flor de muerto (flower of the dead) are used to adorn the altar. Fruit, water, flowers and scented candles are placed with their favourite food and we pray for those who have died. The smell of the candle guides the spirits home to their loved ones. Care must be taken not to blow out the candles as they can only be stubbed out with the flower heads. If the candles are accidentally blown out, the spirits leave.

http://web.archive.org/web/20060907135008/http://www.public.iastate.edu/~rjsalvad/scmfaq/muertos.html: [10/29/09: now using Web Archive link]
"What do Mexicans celebrate on the Day of the Dead" is the title of this illustrated and informative essay by Ricardo J. Salvador.  This is a fine introduction to the festival held the first two days of every November.  Here is how it opens:
This is an ancient festivity that has been much transformed through the years, but which was intended in prehispanic Mexico to celebrate children and the dead. Hence, the best way to describe this Mexican holiday is to say that it is a time when Mexican families remember their dead, and the continuity of life.

The original celebration can be traced to the festivities held during the Aztec month of Miccailhuitontli, ritually presided by the goddess Mictecacihuatl ("Lady of the Dead"), and dedicated to children and the dead. The rituals during this month also featured a festivity dedicated to the major Aztec war deity, Huitzilopochtli ("Sinister Hummingbird")....

I am struck by the "Sinister Hummingbird" war deity and am curious to know more.  The tiny, fleet, jewel-like, sugar-sipping hummingbird seem an odd choice for a war deity.

Here is how it closes:

In general, the more urban the setting within Mexico the less religious and cultural importance is retained by observants, while the more rural and Indian the locality the greater the religious and economic import of the holiday. Because of this, this observance is usually of greater social importance in southern Mexico than in the northern part of the country, which is characterized by a more dilute Indian cultural influence.
 [Annotation expanded 10/18/03]: The ancient festival was originally celebrated in late July/early August.  The feast was moved to All Hallows' Eve by Spanish priests, but the original tone and exuberance, despite the best efforts of those priests, remained the same.  The page offers uncaptioned but interesting photos and a general overview of history and changing local customs.  There are also good internal links to maps, Mexican cooking, MesoAmerican calendars, and more.


"Incense, copal, is burned and thought to elevate  prayers to God"
[Photo added 2 March 2012: From Inside Mexico -- see  3 links above and directly below]

  http://www.inside-mexico.com/featuredead.htm
[Link added 10/19/03]:   From May Herz at "Inside Mexico" comes a great page of information, photos (see above), history, classroom activities, related riddles, proverbs & sayings, music, recipes (e.g., for sugar skulls and Pan de Muerto), links, hypertext, and much more.   Here are several excerpts from the site's survey of history and traditions:
From the beginning of time, man has felt the need to explain the mystery of life and death.  Many civilizations and cultures have created rituals to try and give meaning to  human existence....
...To the indigenous peoples of Mexico, death was considered the passage to a new life and so the deceased were buried with many of their personal objects, which they would need in the hereafter....
...Sometimes, when people of other cultures hear for the first time about the celebration of the Day of the Dead, they mistakenly think it must be: gruesome, terrifying, scary, ugly and sad. Nothing further from the truth, Day of the Dead is a beautiful ritual in which Mexicans happily and lovingly remember their loved relatives that have died.  Much like when we go to a graveyard to leave some lovely flowers on a tomb of a  relative.
...Markets are filled with the cempasúchil flower; this orange marigold was the flower that the Aztecs used to remember their dead by.  Its color represents the tones of earth and is used to guide the souls to their homes and altars....
...Very early in October, all over the country, bakeries offer the delicious Pan de Muerto, Day of the Dead bread, made with flour, butter, sugar, eggs, orange peel, anise and yeast.  The bread is adorned with strips of dough simulating bones and at the top a small round piece of dough that symbolizes teardrops. These breads are placed on the altars or ofrendas, and are also taken to the tombs in the graveyard....
In addition to general information, the site highlights "Mixquic, a small town in Mexico City," and "Janitzio, a charming little island in the state of Michoacan."
http://go-southwest.com/culture/dod1.shtml:[Link updated 26 April 2002 -- dead as of 9/26/06, but here's her new link]:
http://www.lasculturas.com/aa/dod1.htm
[Link added 11/4/00]: From Boise Matthews comes a series of fine pages onDia de los Muertos celebrations in the American Southwest:
While many if not most of the people in the Southwest celebrate Halloween, there's a lesser known festival that originated in Mexico as much as 4,000 years ago....
This page also has links to many other Latin American festivals.

La Muerte -- Lady Death
[From Mexico Connect: see directly below]
  http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/muertos.html
[Link added 10/19/03]: From Mexico Connect comes an illustrated and well crafted page by longtime Mexico resident, Dale Hoyt Palfrey.  She begins:
Her face is unforgettable and she goes by many names: La Catrina, la Flaca, la Huesuda, la Pelona--Fancy Lady, Skinny, Bony, Baldy. A fixture in Mexican society, she's not some trendy fashion model, but La Muerte--Death.

Renowned writer Octavio Paz observes that, undaunted by death, the Mexican has no qualms about getting up close and personal with death, noting that he "...chases after it, mocks it, courts it, hugs it, sleeps with it; it is his favorite plaything and his most lasting love"....

About attitudes to death elsewhere, Palfrey comments:
While death is a topic largely avoided in the USA, the remembrance of deceased ancestors and loved ones is traditional among diverse cultures around the globe, often marked by lighting candles or lamps and laying out offerings of food and drink.  Such celebrations can be traced back as far as the glory days of ancient Egypt when departed souls were honored during the great festival of Osiris.

In Mexico the Day of the Dead is a holiday that tends to be a subject of fascination for visitors from abroad. With its rare mix of pre-Hispanic and Roman Catholic rituals, it is also a perfect illustration of the synthesis of pre-Hispanic and Spanish cultures that has come to define the country and its people.

Death held a significant place in the pantheons and rituals of Mexico's ancient civilizations. Among the Aztecs, for example, it was considered a blessing to die in childbirth, battle or human sacrifice, for these assured the victim a desirable destination in the afterlife....

Here is what she says about the recent resurgence of ancient Mexican traditions in the face of Western globalization:
...Not surprisingly, as Mexican society has modernized, long-held customs have begun to fall by the wayside, particularly among urbanites. But the rapid encroachment of U.S. culture, intensified since the enactment of North American Free Trade Agreement, seems to have spurred many citizens to actively pursue the preservation of Mexican traditions. While each October the country's supermarket shelves are now crammed with plastic pumpkins, witches' hats and rubber masks, government and private institutions have recently increased promotion of commemorative altars displayed in museums, educational centers and other public venues....
[20 October 2003, FYI: for a related link looking more deeply at the clash "between Western individualism and Indian communalism" and the resurgence of indigenous traditions in Meso- and South America, see the LA Times: Across the Americas, Indigenous Peoples Make Themselves Heard by Hector Tobar.]
http://www.dayofthedead.com/
[Link added 9/26/06]:This is an elegant and visually rich site from award-winning photographer and author, Mary J. Andrade (not for older browsers, unfortunately). The "Traditions" page looks at Dia de los Muertos altars in terms of the four elements, earth, air, water, fire. Here is what the author says about fire:
Fire is represented by a wax candle: each lit candle represents a soul, and an extra one is placed for the forgotten soul.
And these are the people we're building thousands of miles of fences to keep out of the United States. Truly, we are a nation of lost and "forgotten souls," despite all the so-called Christians building those stupid, mean-spirited fences. (Have they never heard of Robert Frost's "Something there is that doesn't love a wall, That wants it down"????????)
  http://www3.niu.edu/newsplace/nndia.html
[Link added 10/19/03]: From Aracely Hernandez, a journalism student at Northern Illinois University, comes a brief overview on Dia de los Muertos (with some good links, some of which are also on my page).  About what some cultures view as the morbidness of death:
...It might sound somewhat morbid, but the Mexicans react to death with mourning along with happiness and joy. They look at death with the same fear as any other culture, but there is a difference. They reflect their fear by mocking and living alongside death.
Living alongside death means that Mexicans have to learned to accept it within their lives. Death is apparent in everyday life. It is in art and even in children's toys. It is not respected as it is in other cultures. Children play "funeral" with toys that are made to represent coffins and undertakers.
Death is laughed at in its face. Many euphemisms are used for death, La calaca (the skeleton), la pelona ("baldy"), la flaca ("skinny"), and la huesada ("bony")....

A paper cut-out skeleton
[From the Palomar site -- see directly below]

http://www.palomar.edu/library/DayDead.htm: [Link updated 10/3/02]:

From San Marcos, California, this is the Palomar College Library's lengthy and thorough list of books, videos, periodicals, and internet sources on the Hispanic Day of the Dead.  The annotated bibliography is really fabulous. The page is very long -- for a direct link to the section that covers websites only, click here: http://www.palomar.edu/library/DayDead.htm#IS. [URL updated 4/26/02].  You'll find a large number of websites covering a range that includes ritual, lore, history, art, photos, personal experiences, at least one detractor (Catholic), and pre-Columbian views.

http://web.archive.org/web/20060427032652/http://muertos.palomar.edu/dayofthedead.htm. [Updated 10/3/02 -- dead September/2006; then turned up on Web Archive by 10/29/09]:
This is Palomar's general overview of altars and offerings.  It includes a great number of linked photos of cemeteries, gravestones, tombs, offerings, altars, parades, sugar-skulls, paper-art, and flowers of the dead (marigolds -- this link is quite interesting because it looks at the ancient symbolism of the flowers). Although this is now a Web Archive link, a surprising number of the page's many links are in fine working order.

Added 29 October 2009: Here is the overall index page: http://www.palomar.edu/multicultural/DiadelosMuertos/Index.htm. Usually it includes links to celebrations only from the preceding two years. Neither my Links-Elf nor I were able to find earlier years listed but I kept most of them dating back to 1998 (and just added the two I didn't have: 2000 and 2001) -- see directly below.  Back on 26 September 2006, I wrote: "unfortunately, portions of the wonderful series of annual pages are now under re-construction and much has been lost. Hopefully, some of it will be restored, which is why I am keeping the original links.  In the meantime, this is what's left...."  In the three years since then, I'm happy to report that all but the 2003 page has been restored. (I have written Palomar to ask about it -- perhaps it will soon join the others.)
2009: http://www.palomar.edu/multicultural/Day_of_the_Dead_Exhibition_2009.htm
2008: http://www.palomar.edu/multicultural/DiadelosMuertos/info_exhibition_days_of_the_dead_08.htm. [Added 10/29/09]
2007: [Updated 29 October 009]: http://www.palomar.edu/multicultural/DiadelosMuertos/Foto%20Galeria%20Dia%20de%20los%20Muertos%20Palomar%2007%20Fin.htm
2006: http://www.palomar.edu/multicultural/DayoftheDead2006.htm [STILL BROKEN but see next link for twelve '06 photos]: http://www.palomar.edu/ofrenda/ofrendas_del_festival_06.htm. [Added 10/29/09]
2005: http://www.palomar.edu/library/displays/Oct-Nov2005/DayoftheDead2005.htm
2004: http://www.palomar.edu/library/displays/Oct2004/dayofthedead2004.htm
2003: http://www.palomar.edu/library/displays/October2003/default.htm [STILL BROKEN]
2002: http://www.palomar.edu/library/displays/October2002/default.htm
2001: http://www.palomar.edu/library/displays/October2001/default.htm. [Added 10/29/09]
2000: http://www.palomar.edu/library/displays/October2000/default.htm. [Added 10/29/09]
1999: http://www.palomar.edu/library/displays/October99/default.htm.[First saw this c. 7 Dec. '99 & found it "spectacular!"]
1998: http://www.palomar.edu/Library/displays/October98/default.htm

  http://web.archive.org/web/20021206152346/http://www.mexweb.com/muertos.htm
[September 2006: This site is being rebuilt --it  was supposed to have been back up in July 2006.  The original article can be found in the web archive at the above link.]
[Link added 10/18/03; examples added 10/29/09]: This is a fascinating little page on how to make your own altar for the Day of the Dead.  I love the details. For example:
...A towel, soap and small bowl are put on the altar so that the returning ghost can wash their hands after their long trip. There is a pitcher of fresh water to quench their thirst and a bottle of liquor to remember the good times of their life.

To decorate and leave a fragrance on the altar, the traditional cempasuchil flower is placed around the other figures. Cempasuchil comes from Nahuatl cempoalxochitl, that means the flower with four hundred lives.  The flower petals form a path for the spirits to bring them to their banquete.

http://www.art-e-zine.co.uk/dia.html
[Added 26 September 2006 on the recommendation of Michaela Oldfield]: This site has minimal text but offers a series of photos of Day of the Dead altars -- these remind my meticulous and much-appreciated volunteer links-checker, Michaela, of Haitian altars she has seen.
http://web.archive.org/web/20071010092749/http://www.ixeh.net/travel/ddm/ddm-en/ddm-start.html:[Link updated 10/30/10]
[Link added 10/18/03]: This is "DAY OF THE DEAD IN TOTIMEHUACAN: A Photographic Study." This is an excellent, touching site offering "more than 60 color photographs of decorated graves, family altars and public spaces, plus a bibliography."
  http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/tlresources/units/Byrnes-celebrations/Day.html
[Link added 10/19/03]: This is a 3 or 4 day classroom project written for 4th and 5th graders by Andrea Pretti .  The background information is excellent and the activities sound wonderful -- except for the "Ghostly Remedy," which, hopefully, is meant to be a spoof (and should be captioned: Do not try this at home).
http://web.archive.org/web/19991002195223/http://burn.ucsd.edu/archives/chiapas-l/1995.11/msg00032.html
[10/15/03: unable to get through -- hopefully, it's just a temporary server problem. ///2006: dead link,  but I'm keeping the annotation in case it ever re-appears. /// 2007: it has now re-appeared on Web Archive.]
From Sara Silver of the Associated Press comes this engrossing 2 November 1995 account of a Day of the Dead celebration in Miahuatlan, Mexico.  (Note: the plain site is from an e-mail list archived by the University of California in San Diego.) Here's an excerpt:
...In the cities, the day is heavily influenced  and at times crowded out  by a U.S. import, Halloween. But traditions are fiercely defended in many parts of the Mexican countryside, such as Mihuatlan, a town 50 miles south of Oaxaca City.

Day of the Dead pre-dates the All Saints Day celebrations of the Roman Catholic tradition brought by Spanish colonizers in the 1500s.

Zapotec Indians in this region worshipped the goddess Huitzilopochotli with food, incense and flowers on a special holiday when the dead were believed to parade around their communities....

http://web.archive.org/web/20000530155618/burn.ucsd.edu/archives/chiapas-l/1995.11/msg00031.html
[10/15/03: unable to get through -- hopefully, it's just a temporary server problem. /// 2006: dead link,  but I'm keeping the annotation in case it ever re-appears. ///2007: it has now re-appeared on Web Archive. ]
From the same source as the above comes Sara Silver's 3 November 1995 description of a Day of the Dead celebration in Zaachila, Oaxaca (portions are the same as the above link). An excerpt:
...At dusk, the people of the village gathered to fill the cemetery with tokens of life for their dead.  They laid marigolds and purple flowers at the corners of graves made of cement, stone and tile.  And then, in a scene repeated in cities and towns across Mexico, the Day of the Dead celebrations reached a crescendo Thursday night. Some set off fireworks, while others mediated in silence.

Pedro Mases was one of the quiet ones. He laid a wreath of daisies on the grave of his 13-year-old son, Ivan, who died of an undiagnosed blood ailment a year ago.  ``This helps us accept that our son's death was not a punishment from God,'' he said.

His wife, Blanca, nursing the youngest of their four other children, said it helps her remember her boy.  ``To each his own day,'' she added.

Then it was back to work until next year for the people of Zaachila, a village 21 miles south of Oaxaca City that is inhabited partly by Zapotec Indians....

http://www.squidoo.com/dayofthedead
[Added 30 October 2010]: Finally, if you still want more Day of the Dead links to explore, Squiddo.com has a huge number of them from many sources!
*************

To Samhain page

To Current Autumn Equinox Greeting Page

To Mexico page

To the Indigenous Peoples / Latin America page


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© 1999-2011 Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.
All rights reserved.
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Page created & published 5 September 1999
Latest Updates:
6 September 1999 (minor heading changes);
10 September 1999 (added music); 7 December 1999;
4 June 2000 (activated new link to Mexico page);
11 October 2000 (checked all links); 4 November 2000;
26 April 2002 (updated Boise Matthews' link & checked all others);
3 October 2002: updated Palomar & checked all others - dead ones from April are now back online -- hurrah!
15 October 2003: temporarily removed Aztec music file -- bandwidth theft is accounting for huge drain of bytes
-- I can no longer afford to pay for so much.  I'll restore it in early November. Did links check.
17 October 2003: added Breast Cancer Site link because they're having serious problems getting enough people to click;
also added 9 ungrokked links; 10/18/03, 2am: grokked 3 new links; deleted a 4th; five remaining;
19 October 2003: grokked the remaining 5 & added 2 photos;
20 October 2003: added papel skeleton & truthout.org link.  Fini.
26 September 2006, 4AM: haven't updated this page in 3 years but now, thanks to Michaela's sleuthing, it's done.
4 April 2007: added small timeshare ad for a year.
28 October 2007, 2-3:20am: updated links, thanks to Michaela, my Links-elf.
28 April 2009: deleted timeshare ad -- this company looked legit and all 3 links went only to their pages, but the company,
FYD ("Follow Your Dreams") that booked them didn't respond to my renewal request this year, which seemed odd,
since they renewed right away last year.  I googled FYD, found only one link, which did not go to them,
and discovered that they're running a scam to get pages rated higher in google searches, or something.
Makes no sense to me but I want no part in a scam.  I am now removing all 7 ads on 7 different pages of mine.
18 September 2009, 12:25am: updated Nedstat/Motigo.
29 October 2009: only needed to update 3 sites, which shouldn't have taken any longer than 30-45 minutes,
but the Palomar College series took close to 5 hours -- 5 frustrating, crazy-making hours.
They have so many years,  versions,  broken,  inconsistently-formatted  links to sort through --
and no site map.  Everything's piecemeal, as if they re-invent the wheel with each new group of students.
I love their energy and spirit, their pages are a great resource, but I can't go through this again.
If it continues, I'll just provide one main link next year and let the others break.  ::sigh::
30 October 2010:  updated 2 broken links, thanks to Michaela, and added two more great ones that she recommended.
31 October 2011: updated one link, the 2009 Palomar College page (see 2009 entry above), thanks to Michaela.

Note: I am restoring the Aztec music that I disabled in 2003 due to bandwidth theft.
I will disable it again -- permanently -- if people again steal bandwidth from my site.
If you want to listen to it, listen to it here.
Do not link to it from your own site and listen to it there:
THAT is bandwidth theft.  Don't spoil it for everyone else!

To hear the embedded music, you'll need to have your JavaScript enabled (and not be on AOL). The "square" on the mini-console below will stop the sound; the "triangle" will start it again; the two lines will pause it; the slider controls the volume.
<BGSOUND SRC="AztecFlute.au" LOOP=infinite>

"Flauta Azteca" ("Aztec Flute")
from the Universidad de Guadalajara's Culture & Entertainment website:
the "Nahuatl Music" page
[10/11/00: couldn't get through -- hopefully, it's just a temporary server problem].
(FYI: the site's home page also gives the option of a Spanish version;
there are 3 other selections of Nahuatl music but they can take up to five minutes to load, so be patient.)
2 March 2012: added "ESL Partyland" link from Miss Audrey and her students. Also shifted an image and added a new one.