Lammas comes between August first and second. It is a hot, lazy, delicious time of the year. Bees buzz in the heat of the day, the air is still, and the force of the sun remains strong, even though its sway over the earth is slowly diminishing day by day. In the cooler nighttime, frogs and crickets keep us company. It is here, in the gloaming, where so many rituals begin.......
http://www.leyline.org/cra/articles/lughnasadh.htmlThis is when the powerful gods of the grain harvests are honored. They are in their prime, sometimes generous, sometimes quixotic, and always aware with a bittersweet pleasure that their time will wane, as it always does, and they will die, as they always do, and yet nevertheless they will return to another summer next year, as they always do, and have, and will, for this is the endlessly circling Wheel of the Year, and they ride it proudly.
Yet there is a darker nuance, one that surprised me, for I had thought that this was a purely masculine god's festival. I learned however of Lugh's touching and loving devotion to his foster-mother, the royal Tailtiu, whose death may be even more intimately woven into this season than his.........Note from 1 August 2012: one of my Facebook friends just posted a link to Matthew Fox's essay on the Black Madonna. I hadn't thought of Tailtiu in that context but as I read Fox's essay, it was immediately clear that she is a Black Madonna in her own right, which further deepens the significance of Lammas.
From Kathleen Dupree comes an eloquent essay on the origins of this feast. She includes a little-known and poignant myth of Lugh's foster mother, the daughter of an older race, the Fir Bolg, conquered by the younger Tuatha De Dannan gods of Ireland:http://www.celticspirit.org/lughnasadh.htm:...Lughnasadh is named for Lugh, the Celtic deity who presides over the arts and sciences. According to Celtic legend, Lugh decreed that a commemorative feast be held each year at the beginning of the harvest season to honor his foster mother, Tailtiu. Tailtiu was the royal Lady of the Fir Bolg. After the defeat of her people by the Tuatha De Dannan, she was obliged by them to clear a vast forest for the purpose of planting grain. She died of exhaustion in the attempt. The legend states that she was buried beneath a great mound named for her, at the spot where the first feast of Lughnasadh was held in Ireland, the hill of Tailte. At this gathering were held games and contests of skill as well as a great feast made up of the first fruits of the summer harvest....
...As years passed, traditions surrounding the feast at Tailte began to solidify into events and ceremonial activities designed to celebrate not only Tailtiu and the bounty of the harvest that her original sacrifice provided but also to honor the work and sacrifice of human beings as they strove to provide sustenance for their families and community....
...With the coming of Christianity to the Celtic lands, the old festival of Lughnasadh took on Christian symbolism. Loaves of bread were baked from the first of the harvested grain and placed on the church altar on the first Sunday of August. The Christianized name for the feast of Lughnasadh is Lammas which means "loaf mass".... [Note: too many sites vanish from the web without notice -- that's why I offer long passages from some pages, "just in case."]
This lovely site from a Parabola author, Mara Freeman, continues in the same vein:...Lugh dedicated this festival to his foster-mother, Tailtiu, the last queen of the Fir Bolg, who died from exhaustion after clearing a great forest so that the land could be cultivated. When the men of Ireland gathered at her death-bed, she told them to hold funeral games in her honor. As long as they were held, she prophesied Ireland would not be without song. Tailtiuís name is from Old Celtic Talantiu, "The Great One of the Earth," suggesting she may originally have been a personification of the land itself, like so many Irish goddesses. In fact, Lughnasadh has an older name, Brón Trogain, which refers to the painful labor of childbirth. For at this time of year, the earth gives birth to her first fruits so that her children might live....There are also recipes for this feast: Colcannon, Boxty, Blaeberry jam, Lammas Curds (Crowdie), The Lammas Bannock, and Cawl Cynhaeaf.
Courtesy of Russian Sunbirds
From Witches' Web comes Mike Nichols, whose intriguing seasonal essays are always worth reading. This one is even more explicit about the deeper feminine meaning of this August feast:http://www.webofoz.org/heritage/Lammas.shtml: [Link updated 8/1/05]...In Irish Gaelic, the feast was referred to as 'Lughnasadh', a feast to commemorate the funeral games of the Irish Sun-God Lugh. However, there is some confusion on this point. Although at first glance, it may seem that we are celebrating the death of Lugh, the god of light does not really die (mythically) until the Autumnal Equinox. And indeed, if we read the Irish myths closer, we discover that it is not Lugh's death that is being celebrated, but the funeral games which Lugh hosted to commerate the death of his foster-mother, Taillte. That is why the Lughnasadh celebrations in Ireland are often called the 'Tailltean Games'....Nichols also discusses the date of this feast -- August 1-2 is the usually celebrated time but --....British Witches often refer to the astrological date of August 6th as Old Lammas. This date has long been considered a 'power point' of the Zodiac, and is symbolized by the Lion, one of the 'tetramorph' figures found on the Tarot cards, the World and the Wheel of Fortune (the other three figures being the Bull, the Eagle, and the Spirit). Astrologers know these four figures as the symbols of the four 'fixed' signs of the Zodiac, and these naturally align with the four Great Sabbats of Witchcraft. Christians have adopted the same iconography to represent the four gospel-writers.It was a time for communal festivities with bright, flaming Catherine Wheels (the root of "Catherine" is cognate with Cathar, a "heretical" group in southern France which was massacred by the Catholic Church):...Lammastide was also the traditional time of year for craft festivals. The medieval guilds would create elaborate displays of their wares, decorating their shops and themselves in bright colors and ribbons, marching in parades, and performing strange, ceremonial plays and dances for the entranced onlookers. The atmosphere must have been quite similar to our modern-day Renaissance Festivals.
A ceremonial highlight of such festivals was the 'Catherine Wheel'. Although the Roman Church moved the feast day of St. Catherine [of Alexandria -- 25 November is another of her feast days] all around the calendar with bewildering frequency, its most popular date was Lammas. (They also kept trying to expel this much-loved saint from the ranks of the blessed because she was mythical rather than historical, and because her worship gave rise to the heretical sect known as the Cathari.) At any rate, a large wagon wheel was taken to the top of a near-by hill, covered with tar, set aflame, and ceremoniously rolled down the hill. Some mythologists see in this ritual the remnants of a Pagan rite symbolizing the end of Summer, the flaming disk representing the Sun-God in his decline. And just as the Sun King has now reached the Autumn of his years, his rival or dark self has just reached puberty....[7/23/02, Note: for a plain-text version, see: ftp://ftp.lysator.liu.se/pub/religion/neopagan/Rituals/Holidays/Lammas/about_lammas.]
This is "Heritage of Lughnasadh" by Lark, a well written 1999 essay looking at Lughnasadh and related August feasts from the Old World to the New. I enjoyed the rich sweep of wonderful lore -- as well as several unusual connections. For example:http://web.archive.org/web/20070408091033/http://www.cyberpict.net/sgathan/essays/lghnsdh.htm...In Ireland, a month of athletic games honored Lugh's foster-mother, Tailtiu. In the night skies of this season, the Perseid meteor showers dance in the dark. They are still known in Ireland as the Games of Lugh....and:...In the West Indies, the hurricane Gods walk on land from Lammas until Samhain. The last Monday in July is Hurricane Supplication Day....
[Added 1 August 2006]: This is a well-researched (with bibligraphy), sensible, and beautifully written essay by Kym ní Dhoireann. It was first published in THiNK! Vol. 2, issue 3 Summer/Lughnasadh 1997. She opens with some refreshingly sensible distinctions:http://web.archive.org/web/20080627162537/http://www.druidspath.com/board2/index.php?showtopic=1703:Lughnasadh (loo-na-sa) is another holiday name which is often used for practices not originally associated with the Irish meaning. It is often difficult to separate its modern celebration from the Anglo-Saxon Lammas, although these holidays were probably very different in function and intent. These differences are likely the source of much confusion of practices evident in many NeoPagan celebrations of August festivals. Most NeoPagan working from a Wiccan angle tend to mark this as a day in which the Sun God (often referred to as Lugh) who is also the Grain God dies. There is, however, absolutely no evidence to indicate that the Irish Lugh was a Sun or Grain God ----in fact, there is no good evidence for any Sun God worship among the Celtic Irish.
In most, if not all, Indo-European languages the word "Sun" is feminine and Goddesses and women associated with the Sun are found but no males. The universality of the Sun God and Moon Goddess seems a rather modern myth and has no bearing on ancient Irish practices. Even if there were a Sun God, it would not be Lugh who is a tribal God of many skills and whose brightness may rival the sun but is not the sun; there is some speculation that if He has a nature association it would be with lightening (the Spear He carries) and storms.Rather than being about sacrificing a God, this is a time to offer sacrifice to the Gods and Goddesses. This was a propitious holiday to pray for a good harvest in the last remaining days before it, not a thanksgiving holiday ---the Irish Gods seem to prefer to be given to first rather than waiting to see if They would get proper thanks after Their gifts were given.About Lugh's foster-mother Tailtiu, she writes:By honoring Her sacrifice the people may have been hoping to keep Lugh from neglecting or even destroying the crop. . . . [T]here seems a lot of evidence that Tailtiu was long linked with August festivals in Ireland. . . . [T]he link between Tailtiu and Lugh may be a late [i.e., medieval] concept, but...Her association with the August festival is perhaps even older in Ireland that Lugh's is ---Lugh being of Continental origin from most evidence. Even in the mythology He is a "new arrival." Tailtiu was a member of the Fir Bolg, the "people" of Ireland prior to the arrival of the Tuatha de Danann. . . .I especially like what she says next:Considering these often neglected associations of Lughnasadh with Goddesses this may be an appropriate time to remember Earth Goddesses and Goddesses of the wild places that were sacrificed for human needs. . . . .This is a lengthy, insightful, sweeping essay. The author discusses trial marriages connected with this festival (which includes Beltaine babies born nine months later), offers opposing arguments to some of her data, and shares some wonderful ideas about appropriate modern-day celebrations.
From the pagan-wiccan site at about.com comes a sensitive, eloquent essay on "Lugh Lamfadah, The Liminal God of Lughnassadh" by a skilled guest author, Roy "Wry" Jones.http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/almanac/arc2002/alm02aug.htm..."The thing, the other, and what's between" form the magic three, recognizing the too often ignored yet crucial relationship between ostensible opposites. Inside and outside meet at thresholds, earth and sky meet at mountain tops, sea and earth meet at tide lines, new year and old year meet at Samhain. Any of these things, by bringing opposites into reconciliation, also represent the meeting place of our mundane world and the magical "Otherworld", and are therefore sacred. A god who embodies the coming together of many different realms and energies, would be extraordinarily powerful even in the company of other deities. Such a god is Lugh.What follows includes excellent data on Lugh's foster parents, which adds to nuances already mentioned in the above links.
From the outset, Lugh's unique place in the pantheon is guaranteed by his "inter-racial" conception. His mother, Eithne, is the daughter of King Balor, and therefore a princess of the Fomoire, the one race said to have always inhabited Ireland. Fomorians, depending on which tale is heard, are monstrously ugly or breathtakingly beautiful, and in either case not to be trusted. Lugh's father, Cian, is of the Tuatha de Danaan, the "Tribe of Danu" who will ultimately be the Shining Ones worshipped by ancient Celts and many modern Celtic Pagan reconstructionists....
... Eithhu delivers Lugh, and in some versions, two more babies (destined to become seals) making Lugh one of three. Balor tries to drown all three, but only Lugh escapes the briny deep, to be fostered by Tailtu and Mannanan, each of whom have qualities that add to the liminal essence of Lugh's nature....
This is a rich essay, well worth reading (given its quality, it's disappointing, however, that it doesn't provide references).
This is a newly written page for Lammas 2002 by my friend the "Weather Doctor," Dr. Keith Heidorn. His eloquent essay looks at both science and lore (he's also chosen many exquisite illustrations to express the late summer mood). Here are lovely excerpts on the Corn Spirit and fire:http://www.schooloftheseasons.com/lammas.html:...In many agrarian communities, the last harvested sheaf of grain was treated with special honour, for the farmers believed that with the cutting of the last sheaf, the corn spirit retreated into the soil. There in its underground refuge, the corn spirit slept throughout the Winter until Spring. In the Spring that last sheaf was returned to the fields when new seed was being sown, so that its spirit would awaken both seed and land.
One traditional Lammas custom was the construction of the kern-baby, corn dolly, or corn maiden. This figure, braided into a woman's form from the last harvested sheaf of grain, represented the Harvest Spirit. (In America, the tradition is continued in the making of corn husk dolls.) The doll would be saved until Spring, when it was ploughed into the field to consecrate the new planting and insure a good harvest. In other traditions, the corn dolly was fed and watered throughout the Winter, then burned in the fires at Beltane to insure a continuation of good growth.
Another custom drawn from Lammas relates to fire. Lammas was, to the Celts, one of four Great Fire Festivals, held on the cross-quarter days. During Lammas, the custom of lighting bonfires was intended to add strength to the powers of the waning sun. Afterward, the fire brands were kept in the home through the Winter as protection against storms, lightning and fires caused by lightning....
This is Waverly Fitzgerald's essay on Lammas -- her writings appear frequently among my seasonal pages because they are so well-rounded, beautifully written and insightful. This one starts with a dream and a king's murder in 1100 A.D. From there, she moves to Lugh and other grain gods. Along the way, you'll find great lore and ritual ideas.
From the Shore Journal comes "The Harvest of the Grain" by Rita Foust, an attractively illustrated page with an exceptionally vivid meditation for this festival:http://www.wicca.com/celtic/akasha/lammas.htm...In a traditional meditation during Lughnasadh, participants are encouraged to visualize themselves on the back of a crow (an important member of the Celtic fetish family), flying over fields bright with sunlight. People are singing as they rake the hay into mounds, and you are so close you can smell the fresh hay and hear the harvesters' song. The Sun of Lugh is high in the sky, but His strength is waning. As you alight in a nearby oak tree, there is a sense of peace and security as you are wrapped in Macha's wings. Rest. You are in Her arms, the wings of the Mother, and basking in the warmth of the Father's rays....There are also good ritual suggestions borrowed from Laurie Cabot at the end.
From Herne at the Celtic Connection comes a succinct page on the festival; he includes the traditional foods, herbs, flowers, incense, and gemstone (carnelian).http://www.wicca.com/celtic/akasha/lamrit.htm
Again from the Celtic Connection comes Akasha Ap Emrys' elaborate ritual for Lughnasadh.http://pagaian.org/news/imbolclammas-earthgaia
[Added 29 July 2011]: From Australia comes PaGaian. Since their seasons are reversed, Australians celebrate Imbolc when we in the northern hemisphere celebrate Lammas, and Lammas when we celebrate Imbolc. Thus, the two are combined here along with a 2010 video of a Lammas celebration (my computer can't access video clips but I'm sure it's lovely). The site comes from Glenys Livingstone, a colleague and cyber-friend of mine from a Goddess Scholars' list. I find her approach, especially to "PaGaian Cosmology," both insightful and lyrical. Her links to essays and reflections are well worth exploring.http://www.geomancy.org/astronomy/quarter-cross-quarter/lughnasad/index.html: [Link updated 23 July 2002 & again 2 August 2004 -- how I wish authors would stop fussing with their links! -- the ripple-effect is huge & really irritating. Updated again 8/25/07 -- site has gone high tech and won't load on older browsers.]
This lengthy 1997 essay by Sig Lonegren for the "Isle of Avalon Knowledge Bank" looks at the god Lugh in broad mythic and astrological contexts (the author includes references at the end, always a plus). I found it interesting. I also enjoyed the suggestions for a simple earth ritual near the end.http://web.archive.org/web/20040203072620/http://www.paganet.org/pnn/2000/Lughnasadh/sabbat.html
[Annotation updated 31 July 2001]:I recently took the time to do a careful reading of this essay (I only had time to scan it when I added it last year). I thoroughly enjoyed myself. The author looks in depth at early Irish mythic history and the unknown Lugh's sudden appearance on the eve of a great battle. The castle gatekeeper refuses to admit him. Lugh says he's a carpenter. The gatekeep says they already have one. Lugh says he's a smith. He's told they have one of those too. This goes on and on until finally, in Lonegren's words:...At this point, it appeared that anything that Lugh might offer, the gateman would reject, but Lugh persisted with a list of his qualifications - harpist, poet, sorcerer, one skilled in the strategies and tactics of war, cupbearer, metalworker and physician. In each case, the gateman replied that they already had one.The author looks at different ways of reckoning the right day for Lammas and the other three Cross Quarter Days; he also discusses scrying in terms of the elements associated with each day. I found Lammas the most interesting because, as the story of Lugh shows, we may have exactly what we need right at our door, trying to get past the gatekeeper, and yet we too often don't recognize this, or as Lonegren expresses it: "It's a mystery why sometimes the solution to a problem has to hit you over the head repeatedly before you are finally able see it." Here is what he says about Cross Quarter Day scrying:
Finally Lugh said, "Then ask the good King if he has anyone who has all of these skills. If he does, I will not enter Tara."
When King Nuada heard these words, he sent his best chess player to the main gate of Tara to challenge Lugh to a game of chess. Lugh firmly trounced him. At this, Lugh was finally welcomed to Tara, and went on to lead the warriors as Battle Chief of the Tuatha De Danann to victory over Eochaid and the Fomorians.......For me, Samhain is when the veil to the other side is thinnest, so Air works well for divination. Imbolc is the time to use water for scrying the future. Beltane is Fire that can scry the past. Lughnasad/Lammas is Earth for scrying the present - sometimes the most difficult of all to see clearly (remember the story of Lugh Long Arm).It's a fine page, worth the time it takes to explore. Of special note is the ritual at the end: this scrying-the-present-with-a-bowl-of-loose-earth has me so intrigued that I plan to do it when I celebrate the feast tomorrow night <smile>.
From Lance at PagaNet comes a nicely done little essay on Lugh's role in Celtic mythology. Continuing with the above thread from Sig Lonegren:...In one of the Tuatha's victories, Lugh spared the life of Bres, a defeated enemy captain, in exchange for advice on ploughing, sowing, and reaping. He was seen as a multi-talented deity, being capable and quite good at all he undertook....There are also useful ritual suggestions at the end.
http://paganwiccan.about.com/library/weekly/aa080599.htm: [8/2/04: link is dead but I'm keeping the annotation. 7/26/11: I wrote her at WordPress and am hoping there's a way to rescue her essay.] 7/31/12: message from my Links-Elf, Michaela: the link works now but I donít see Frances Donovanís article. However, there are many interesting articles and the site is current (July 2012 updates), including an article on grains - http://paganwiccan.about.com/b/2012/07/12/spirit-of-the-grain.htm
(Courtesy of Tradestone International)
From Frances (a.k.a. Okelle) Donovan comes Lughnassad, the Festival of Bread, a good overview of this ancient feast; she includes suggestions for your seasonal altar and wisely reminds us that --http://www.ladybridget.com/r/augi001.html: [Success!! Updated 23 July 2002, thanks to Crystal Black, who found it.]...Once farmers cut down grain, they begin the process of winnowing: separating the chaff from the wheat. You can do a physic winnowing at Lughnassad as well....
This is a good "Lammas Introduction" from Lady Bridget. Her focus is on the "Sacrificial King," especially in the form of John Barleycorn, whose help is sought for the harvest time ahead:http://web.archive.org/web/20091018191935/http://geocities.com/Athens/Parthenon/7039/AshlinCI.html:...In the days of our ancestors, this would mark the beginning of the hardest work they had to do, the back breaking labor of bringing in the harvest. Getting all of it in, and packed, stored, canned, cooked, salted, etc. before the storms of winter set in, was sometimes a race against time. No wonder they needed the help and strength of the Gods, and no wonder they partied so wildly when they were given the chance!....Lady Bridget explores the spiritual attitude with which a Lammas ritual might be approached. She also makes practical suggestions -- for example, baking corn muffins or a John Barleycorn cake (using a gingerbread man mold), using corn husks to mark off the ritual area, etc. Her creative ideas work well with other Lammas rituals. (Note: at the bottom of her page is a link to her "Sabbat Menu" -- if you follow the link, you'll find a page that includes her own Lammas ritual for a wiccan community.)
From Stella Maris come "Lughnasadh Recipes" for Perfect Corn Bread, Stuffed Mushrooms, and Noodles in Faery Butter. I don't normally include recipes on my site but these look like fun. Since Lammas is an often overlooked feast, maybe the recipes will inspire you to celebrate it this year <smile>.Rescued Grain Page:
31 July 2010: I first added this page in 2002, it went through several link updates -- and this year finally vanished (even from Web Archive). But my Links Elf, Michaela, happened to save its text, so the above link now goes to our "rescue page."ftp://ftp.lysator.liu.se/pub/religion/neopagan/Rituals/Holidays/Lammas/raisinbread_recipe
[Original annotation from 2002]: This site opens with a listing of seven cross-cultural grain deities from the Near East and Europe:...It is common ritual in these cultures to bake special ceremonial breads to honor the Gods and Goddesses. The grinding of the grain represents the harvest and death (or transition), adding sprouted wheat and yeast represents resurrection, and the consumption of the food represents the cycles of nature and new life. Here are two of my favorite breads for Lammas....This introduction is followed by two recipes and ritual elements (chants and blessing).
This is another recipe -- this time for making four loaves of "Lammas Raisin Bread."http://www.cs.utk.edu/~mclennan/BA/SF/MidSummer.txt:[Updated 8/25/07]
Finally, leaving Celtic themes, from Biblioteca Arcana comes this detailed plain-text page on ancient Greek festivals held during July and August. It is the work of Dr. Bruce MacLennan of the University of Tennessee's Department of Computer Science:
...The heat of the summer is past its peak and the harvest is nearing completion. This is the month of Hekatombaion (nominally mid-July to mid-August), which began the Athenian year.....Data is wonderfully extensive but, unfortunately, his cryptic references do not come with a decoding-key. If you go to his home page and e-mail him on an individual basis, I'm sure he can provide his sources. But an overall decoding-key would be so much better. ::sigh::
Related Mything Links Pages:
Current Summer Solstice / Summer Greetings & Lore
Archived: Summer Solstice Greetings & Lore 2001
Archived: Summer Solstice Greetings & Lore 2000
Archived: Summer Solstice Greetings 1999
Archived: Autumn Equinox / Autumn Greetings & Lore 2001
Archived: Autumn Equinox / Autumn Greetings & Lore 2000
Archived: Autumn Equinox / Autumn Greetings & Lore 1999
Eastern & Western Europe: Earth-Based Ways (Wicca)
Wheel of the Year
Common Themes: Green Men
DEVIC WEATHER-WORKING: Introduction
An experimental, on-going ritual in cyberspace
Lore & History of Maize
[Note: "corn" in Old World contexts means "grain";
corn husks, corn muffins, corn dolls, etc mentioned for rituals
refer to corn, or maize, indigenous to the New World.]
The "square" on the mini-console below will stop the sound; the "triangle" will start it again; the two lines will pause it; the slider controls the volume.
© 1999-2012 Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.
All rights reserved.
Page created 1 September
Two links added, text written, and page published 3 September 1999
2000: New links added 27-30 July 2000 [one link from 9/99 vanished so I had to delete it].
1 August 2000; 18-19 August 2000; 11 October 2000 (changed bkgd);
2001: 11 July 2001 (Ned3.0 & checked all links); 31 July 2001 (updated annotations on 2 links).
2002: 18-19 July 2002: checked all links;
23 July 2002: updated Sig's and Lady Bridget's links; grokked a batch of new links;
24 July 2002: finished new links & shiftings; 31 July 2002: added Keith's new link.
2003: no time to check anything!
2004: 1-2 August 2004: checked all links and updated what I could.
2005: 7/31-8/1/05: updated changes thanks to Michaela's searches.
2006: 7/30-31/06: updated Paganet link that Michaela tracked down; other dead ones still remain dead.
8/1/06: added excellent new link from Cyber Pict.net.
2007: 8/25/07: very late this year due to grief over the sudden slaughter of my soaring maple tree, Treebeard, 30 July 2007.
Updated 3 links Michaela tracked down.
2008: 2pm, 30 July 2008: Treebeard (see above entry) was slain last year on this date, starting at 9am.
I went out in the wee hours this morning to where, a year ago, he would still be growing for a few hours more.
I wept for a long time and made offerings of organic tobacco to his spirit.
After some restless sleep, updated 2 links that Michaela found.
3 August 2008: reformatted this Updates section to highlight annual changes.
2010: 3:30am, pre-dawn 30 July 2010: updated 5 links, inc. Wild Divine promo; still have 1 more to do for a lost page--
fortunately, Michaela saved a copy in her files. Rest are fine.
(And yes, still grieving for Treebeard -- once such a vast presence, and now no more.)
31 July 2010: added "Rescued Grain Page."
2011: 8:30pm EDT, 26 July 2011: deleted dmoz.org page as no longer relevant. Updated 2 other links, thanks to Michaela.
Finally deleted obnoxious Nedstat counter with its creepy pop-ups. Here are final tallies:
Measuring since Ö 28 July 2000 / Total number of page views up till now 58,399
Busiest day so far 1 August 2006: page views 1,095 / Page views yesterday 34 / Page views today 39
5:15pm EDT, 29 July 2011: added a new link for this year: Glenys Livingstone's fine PaGaian page for Lammas/Imbolc in Australia.
2012: 11:40pm EDT, 31 July 2012: changed quotes from italics to pale green non-italics because they'll be easier to read this way.
Deleted an unnecessary word ("delicious") in my 2nd paragraph & changed a "when" to a "where" in the 1st paragraph.
In a quote about Catherine Wheels, I slightly altered the passage to clarify that the saint in question is Catherine of Alexandria.
Updated 2 links, thanks, as always, to my Links-Elf, Michaela, who also discovered 2 new links at one of these.
Later (2:14am EDT, 1 August 2012): added Matthew Fox/Black Madonna data.
See my review of this video game at:
Journey to Wild Divine