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An Annotated & Illustrated Collection of Worldwide Links to Mythologies,
Fairy Tales & Folklore, Sacred Arts & Sacred Traditions
by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.
June 2003: Retired from Department of Mythological Studies
Pacifica Graduate Institute
(Home of the libraries & archives of Joseph Campbell, Marija Gimbutas, & James Hillman)

Common Themes, East & West

Cosmic Webs,
Spinning, Spindles,
Embroidery, Quilts, Clothing

Grandmother Spider Woman
giving magical feathers the twin sons of Changing Woman
(Andy Tsihnahjinnie, in Navajo History, 1971,
Rough Rock, Arizina: Navajo Curriculum Center)

Author's Note:
(Autumn 1999)

Myths of weaving exist around the world as metaphors for creation.  The spindle is often an axis mundi and its whirling whorls serve a cosmogonic function.  Plato, for example, had a vision of the great goddess Ananke, "Necessity," spinning the universe; the sun, moon, and planets were her spindle's whorls; sirens sang through the webs of time and fate that she wove, and souls endlessly moved through the strands on their way to and from death and rebirth.  Many goddesses are spinners and weavers: the Fates of ancient Greece; Athena, also of Greece; Neith of ancient Egypt; in Teutonic myth the Norns spin secret meanings into life; in the American southwest, Grandmother Spider Woman spins all life from the shimmering threads in her belly.

At one of the lowest ebbs in my life, I was nearly broke, no TA-ships were available at my university, I couldn't even get hired locally as a receptionist, and yet I needed a job so that I could complete what would eventually be a 700 page dissertation.  My usual pattern was to sink into despair, but I had done that so many times in the past and I was so tired of it.  I chose instead to consciously accept the situation as a "test," an "initiation."  The image I kept getting was of weaving a new pattern of energies around me.  I decided to actualize the image by fashioning a makeshift hanging loom out of two thin, fairly straight eucalyptus branches strung with yarn.  I hung it from the low rafter-beams of my apartment, which meant I had to stand on a stool to reach it.  For hours I stood there, my neck aching, as I wove beautifully colored threads, gently holding my mind on the colors of the weft threads, the movements of my hands, the slowly filling warp threads, and not on the hopelessness and anger waiting only inches away.  During those days, when depression threatened, I wove; when I felt hope, I wove; when my mind started racing too fast, I wove; when my mind went numb, I wove.  In between, I kept looking for jobs.

It worked. . . . . . .


Human "spiders," free, playing effortlessly in their cosmic webs
(From Dover Publications)

[link updated 10/6/00]

In honor of spiders, whose webs and skills figure so significantly in ancient weaving myths, this page from about.com focuses on annotated links concerning spider silk -- its strength, uses, lore, and science.
This page is on spiders in mythology (Native Americans' Grandmother Spider Woman -- click on the site's opening image for more; Africa's Anansi); novels (Charlotte's Web); comics ("Spider Man"); and movies (every film or TV movie you can imagine on spiders and tarantulas).  Layout is too busy; some great sounding links, unfortunately, are broken; others are only in Japanese; nevertheless, what remains is excellent and quite captivating.
From Gwendolyn A. Magee comes this fine site of well chosen and annotated links to worldwide quilting, ranging from the Hmong of Southeast Asia to the Hopi of the United States.  As the author states, her site is a --
....guide to information about the quilting and/or fiber related art, craft and textile traditions of diverse ethnic groups including: African, Haitian, African-American, Latin American, Asian, and Native American.
Against a brilliant background of fabrics in reds, wines, crimsons and scarlets, Tara Maginnis, Ph.D. presents her worldwide "Ethnic Costume & Textile Links."  There are links here with something for everyone -- lore, ritual, history, how-to, images, folk crafts, and much more.


Artist Unknown  (but probably Susan Seddon Boulet)
[Note: the above "Arachne" link from Apple Hollow Farm will take you to Arachne's story as well as to a larger  version of the painting; the mood of the painting,  however, also fits the Greek myth of Polymela -- see directly below for "The Voice of the Shuttle."]
http://www.english.ucsb.edu/faculty/ayliu/research/klindienst.html: [link updated 10/6/00]
"The Voice of the Shuttle" comes from Sophocles and refers to Polymela, a young woman who was savagely raped by her brother-in-law, a Thracian king.  To prevent her from telling her sister (his wife) what had happened, he cut out her tongue.  Desperate, Polymela used the only means she had available -- she let her wooden shuttle speak for her as she wove the scenes of her rape and mutilation into a tapestry.  When her sister saw it, she understood what had happened and took a terrible revenge upon her husband.

In this powerful 1984 paper (originally appearing in an earlier form in The Stanford Literature Review 1: 25-53), "The Voice of the Shuttle is Ours," by Dr. Patricia Klindienst, the myth is explored from a feminist perspective.  This is one of the most brilliant and insightful essays I've read in years.  (This site is double-listed on my Ancient Greece page.)

Greek Women Weaving
Attic black-figured jug, c.550 BC, attributed to the Amasis Painter.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fletcher Fund, 1931
(Eric Schaal, photographer)
In: TimeLife's series, GREAT AGES OF MAN: Classical Greece, 1965:86.
  http://www.english.ucsb.edu/faculty/ayliu/research/klindienst2.html: [link updated 10/6/00]
When Alan Liu (of a huge website also named "Voice of the Shuttle") created a webpage for Klindienst's paper (see directly above), she wrote an epilogue for it.  It dates from 1996 and is as impassioned, eloquent, raw and impeccable as her earlier paper. (This site is also double-listed on my Ancient Greece page.)


Sleeping Beauty meets the old spinning woman in the castle tower room
By Edmund Dulac

Author's Note:

On the left, we see a familiar fairy tale; on the right, we are taken out the familiar and into a suggestion of the ancient, mysterious realm of the spinning crone-goddesses, who still offer initiation but no longer find trained candidates; instead, only the unwary come, those who have no knowledge of how to hold the Spinners' cosmic energies.  These young women touch the spindles, and needles, and fabrics woven into thin garments for those who intend not to eat for a century.  Then they too often fall into a sleep and shut down entirely until they are "rescued" by domesticity.  The crones go on spinning, shut away in their towers and kivas, ignored, until it's too late.

http://www.thorshof.org/spinmyth.htm: [Link updated 10/6/00 & 11/16/02]
....Spinning is the art of transforming loose fibres such as wool and flax into thread. This is done by pulling out the fibres to the required width and introducing twist to fix and strengthen them. The ancient tools of the spinner were the distaff and the spindle. The distaff was a long staff to which the fibres were tied to keep them untangled. The spindle was a short shaft weighted with a stone whorl which was used like a suspended spinning top to provide momentum and the downward pull of gravity for the work. These same implements were the spinner's only tools until the late fourteenth century when early spinning wheels were developed. Because first wheels were large, inefficient, expensive and unpopular the spindle remained in common use until the eighteenth century.
This is an excellent essay, "Spinning in Myths and Folktales," by Thorskegga Thorn, a pagan social historian and spinner.   The focus is on goddesses, fairies, and women who spin -- their spindles, ritual-connections with water and blood, their expectations, and their fates.  The essay covers varying European traditions ranging from Ireland to Russia and includes good references and a bibliography.
http://www.thorshof.org/spinyarn.htm: [Link updated 10/6/00 & 11/16/02]
Also from Thorskegga Thorn (see directly above) comes "Spin Me a Yarn: Spinning Folklore from ballards, tales, myths and rhymes."  Here you'll find complete versions of all the material (and more) mentioned in the essay above; at the end of each version are Thorn's own engrossing historical commentaries and sources.  The unillustrated page is very long but loads swiftly, has a great mixture of 42 tales and poems, and shouldn't be missed by lovers of spinning lore.  Here, for example, is an excerpt on the Greek Fates, singing as they work:
White raiment enfolding their aged limbs robed their ankles with a crimson border; on the snowy heads rested rosy bands, while their hands duly plied the eternal task. The left hand held the distaff clothed with soft wool; the right hand, lightly drawing out the threads, with upturned fingers shaped them, then the downward thumb turned the spindle poised with rounded whorl; and so with their teeth they still plucked the threads and made the work even. Bitten ends of wool clung to their dry lips, which had before stood out from the smooth yarn; and at their feet soft fleeces of white- shining wool were kept safe in baskets of osier. They then, as they struck the wool, sang with a clear voice, and thus poured forth the fates in divine chant. That chant no length of time shall prove untruthful.
[This is an extract from the writings of Catullus and it gives an excellent description of the spinning methods of Roman women.... This passage refers to the Fates, the three old women who control the destinies of men according to classical mythology. The whirling spindle was full of symbolism for men of the ancient world and would have been mesmerising at a time when so little was mechanised. As a result the spindle (and the potter's wheel) was believed to be the tool of the gods for shaping the lives of men.]
http://www.thorshof.org/spinwell.htm: [Link updated 10/6/00 & 11/16/02]
Again from Thorskegga Thorn  is "The Spindle and the Well," a continuation of her previous two pages where sacred wells and spindle-pricked blood play a significant role.  Here she re-tells three stories, "Frau Holde" from Germany, "The Two Sisters" from Scandinavia, and "The Horned Women" from Ireland.  At the end of these three is Thorn's always intriguing historical commentary.  Here is how she begins this page:
Fairy tales are a much ignored source of heathen lore which is a shame because much of Frigg’s worship survives in this form. The folk names for plants and star constellations and stories such as The Gift of Flax tell us as much about the goddess as the Eddas do. Here are three tales from Northern Europe crammed with enchantment, magical worlds, hostile and benevolent spirits. These three stories have much in common, they are told by women for women, the heroine of each tale is a spinner, a role every housewife and maiden could once relate to. Spinning is strongly associated with magic in Europe as these tales show, pick up a spindle, and you had better be wise in the ways of spirits.

       The other element all these stories share is the magical well, as a portal to a supernatural world, but let the tales speak for themselves....

For her overall site index on Germanic goddesses, see: http://www.thorshof.org/goddess.htm
Based on "O Mother Sun" by Patricia Monaghan (Crossing Press), this is a page giving information on Saule, the Baltic solstice goddess of the sun, spinning, weaving.  My favorite part is this beautiful passage on the sun-stone (amber) and spinning (this site is double-listed on my Winter Greetings page):
....Among the Balts, the connection between the sun and spinning is very old, and the sun-stone, amber, forms the link....Sometimes amber discs were also placed in the grave, perhaps as prayers to the Sun Goddess to spin forth the lost life in another body.... [A]mber was considered a magical substance for a spinner; as the light never tangles in the sky, so an amber spindle protected the new thread from snarls caused by unhappy or malicious spirits....
                 "Saule, my amber weeping Goddess
                       creating light like thread.
          As "Saules Mat" my mother sun, daily blessing
                    your thankful world with light."

Rumpelstiltskin and the Miller's Daughter
From Andrew Lang's The Blue Fairy Book, ca. 1889

Author's Note:

As a writer since childhood, I have long identified with the grumpy dwarf, Rumpelstiltskin.   He is my metaphor for a writer's life.  We both spend long nights spinning straw into gold -- well, that is, he spins straw, I spin reams of paper (or, more recently, pixels and megabytes) into gold.  Unlike him, however, I have no desire for anyone's firstborn child.  My two Himalayan cats more than suffice!
http://members.aol.com/rocketrder/frytales/rumple/index.htm: [link updated 10/6/00]
Others also spin straw (pixels and megabytes) into gold!  This thorough and wonderful site is dedicated to Rumpelstiltzkin [sic] by Heidi Anne Heiner, a lover of fairy tales with a B.A. in English/Children's Literature and an M.S. in Information Science.  Topics included are:  History of Rumpelstiltzkin, the Annotated Rumpelstiltzkin, Tales Similar to Rumpelstiltzkin, Rumpelstiltzkin Themes in Art, Art Gallery (still under construction), and Bibliography.

Weaver Gaia Cyrilla and her medieval household
(Bridgeman Art Library/Bibliotheque Nationale)
Found in: TimeLife's series, LIVING WISDOM: The Sacred Earth, 1995:28.
From Millersville University in Pennsylvania comes this page on Medieval Tapestries with links to a series of nicely illustrated (some in color) essays done by students. Topics include the origin of tapestries in ancient Egypt and among the Copts; medieval uses of tapestries; the role of women in creating them; guilds; the Unicorn tapestries; and medieval women artists in general.  (Note: If you follow backwards to the "Secondary hypertext List," and scroll to the top of that page, you'll come to a superb collection of links to resources on women in medieval times.)
This is a too-brief look at weaving in England's Canterbury area during the 16th and 17th centuries.  At this time:
....there were numerous religious wars fought in Europe and persecution against many non-catholic sects was rife. When Queen Elizabeth I came to the throne and the Country returned to the Protestant religion previously established by Henry VIII but interrupted by "Bloody Mary", Walloons who had fled the Low Countries and Huguenots from France started to settle in Canterbury.
     It is understood that 100 families settled in the City during the time of Elizabeth I and with them they brought their looms and the weaving trade. This started to assist Canterbury to become a centre for trade and wealth that it had lost when Henry dissolved the monasteries and removed the tomb of St. Thomas.

Detail of Spinning
(from the Russian Fairy Tale of "Father Frost")
Courtesy of Tradestone International
This is a delightful site with a handful of nicely illustrated fairy tales re-told by Kathi at Apple Hollow Farm (see elsewhere on my page for artwork from this site; also see below under "Contemporary..." for the home page).  In addition to Arachne's story (see above under the "Ancient Mediterranean World"), you'll also find Rumpelstiltskin, Sleeping Beauty, The Flax, and A Weaver's Pride.  There's also a sweet little page called "Oddities and Old Things" with ads and greeting cards related to spinning from 1879-1906.   More tales related to weaving and spinning are promised in the future.


TOKU KRA TOMA ("Toku's Soul Cloth")
"The cloth is designed and named to commemorate
the soul of  a warrior Queenmother of that name...." [18th century]
(See the site directly below)

This wonderfully illustrated explanatory page looks at the history and significance of Ghana's Kente cloth:
....Kente is an Asante ceremonial cloth hand-woven on a horizontal treadle loom. Strips measuring about 4 inches wide are sewn together into larger pieces of cloths. Cloths come in various colors, sizes and designs and are worn during very important social and religious occasions. In a total cultural context, kente is more important than just a cloth. It is a visual representation of history, philosophy, ethics, oral literature, moral values, social code of conduct, religious beliefs, political thought and aesthetic principle....

Nyankonton: "God's Eyebrow" (i.e., the Rainbow)
Kente Cloth (see directly above)

This long, unillustrated, excellent page looks at the "History of Kente Cloth," a brilliantly colored cloth dating from the 17th century (but with much earlier roots, as the page points out) among the Ashanti people.  According to legend, two men learned the art while watching a spider weaving.  The page covers the historical background, materials and techniques, aesthetics and usage, Kente symbolism, and the symbolic meaning of colors.  (Links at the bottom will take you to pages showing Kente art for sale as stoles, etc.)


Nishijin Woven Silk
[from Traditional Crafts of Japan -- see directly below]


These two linked pages from the large "Traditional Crafts of Japan" site (see directly above for their home page) focus on weaving.  Images are small and non-clickable for enlargements (see above) but are nonetheless intriguing.  Navigation is a bit wonky -- you have to go to the second linked page in order to find a menu covering further data from a wide range of areas in Japan.

Dyeing Yarn, Oitama Pongee
[Page two, from the same site]

When I clicked on a hypertext link to "Dyeing," I found the same thing -- I had to go to the second linked page to reach a menu with further dyeing information.  It was worth the extra effort, however.  The many pages are brief (they include basic statistics on firms doing the weaving, spinning, how many employees they have, etc.) but what I found fascinating were the historical elements at the beginning of each page, tracing patterns and techniques back many centuries.


Navajo Weaver
(Photo from the Southwest Museum)


From  Tara Prindle and "Native Web" comes this opening page on Native technology.  The major categories are: Beadwork, Birds & Feathers, Clay & Pottery, Games & Toys, Leather & Clothes, Metalwork, Plants & Trees, Porcupine Quills, Stonework & Tools, and Weaving & Cordage.  Obviously, not all of these are related to weaving, but because so many are (e.g., feathers, beadwork, quill embroidery), I'm just going to give you the opening URL and let you browse.  I looked at finger weaving (under "Weaving & Cordage"), cordage, preserving bird feathers and wings, and porcupine quillwork -- and I found each of these essays fascinating in their history and lore, often richly illustrated, always absorbing; a bibliography is provided for each page as well as a list of books you can buy online.

Navajo Weaver, Marie S. Teasyatwho


From "Cowboy Poets on the Internet" comes this brief little page on a 1996 exhibit of Navajo rugs in Elko, Nevada.  There are two smallish images and some good descriptions.  A related, unlisted link offers additional information at: http://www.westfolk.org/travel.events.weavers.html
This is a brief page promoting Spider Woman Stories: Legends of the Hopi Indians by G. M. Mullett, published by the University of Arizona Press.  Don't miss the link at the bottom to an "excerpt" -- actually, a complete tale about two starving Hopi children, a clay hummingbird, and Grandmother Spider Woman, who lets the bird come alive and save the children and their families.


Mexican Chenalhó weaver with backstrap loom
(Also shown on Paula Geise's site directly below:
from the Science Museum of Minnesota)


For the present-day descendants of the Maya living in the Chiapas Highlands of Mexico, weaving restores harmony and the axis mundi is the woman herself who wears a sacred huipi.  When I discovered this site by the late Paula Geise, it was falling apart -- every link but one was broken.  Since her data is too unique to be lost, I decided to restore it.  In the West we tend to think of art in terms of oils, watercolors, stone and fine metals; it is good to be reminded that the spirit of beauty that infuses great art also manifests through threads spun of hand-harvested cotton and dyed with natural plants. (This site is double-listed on my Creation Myths page.)
This attractive site comes from the Center for Traditional Textiles of Cusco, Peru, a special project of Cultural Survival in Cambridge, MA.  It offers a number of excellent photos of traditional, brightly colored textiles as well as intriguing data.  The Center's purpose "...is to help preserve and celebrate Andean textiles and assist their makers in carrying on a tradition practiced for more than 2000 years." (This site is double-listed on my Andean Peoples page.)


Weft Threads
Photo © by Kathi of Apple Hollow Farm  [see directly below]

When I'm seventy or eighty, if I ever retire, one of my fondest wishes is to take up spinning and weaving.  This desire was re-kindled when I saw this warm, homey site from Kathi at Apple Hollow Farm in Wisconsin.   I intend one day to be one of her customers for a new or used tapestry loom and spinning wheel.
This site comes from from Richard and Jane Martin for England's Cotswold Woollen Weavers.  From their introduction:
Of course we would love to have you actually visit our mill, shop and museum in Filkins, in the English Cotswolds - and these pages tell you all about what you will find if you do.

But we hope that a tour of these pages will be almost as good!  There's lots about our mill, and how we turn fleece into fabric... about textile processes and history... about our village and its people....

Along the way, as you browse, you'll find some fascinating historical data.  For example:
Wool tax paid the ransom of King Richard the Lionheart captured during the crusades, and to this day the Lord Chancellor sits in parliament on a woolsack to mark the historical importance of the wool trade.... [From the Visitor Page]

....There is evidence that the Romans brought sheep with them as they battled northwards, and perhaps they introduced them to the Cotswold hills around the important Roman settlement at Corinium, the modern Cirencester. They would have valued these sheep for their milk and for their fleece: shivering Southern
European mercenary soldiers needed warm winter coats. There is further evidence, based mostly on scanty skeletal remains, that these Roman imports were the ancestors of the greatflocks of Medieval Cotswolds - and indeed of all the English long-wool breeds.  [From my favorite page from this website: Wool & Weaving in the Cotswold]

From the "Kingdom of An Tir" Spinners' Guild (part of the Society for Creative Anachronism) comes this handsome Welcome page to the Guild.  Links will take you to a brief history of spinning; an excellent bibliography; and a page on the many different kinds of fibers, both familiar and exotic, used in spinning.  All pages are nicely illustrated.
From about.com comes a large list of links to anything related to weaving or spinning.
* For a dozen or so as-yet-ungrokked links, see bottom of page.......  *
Mything Links' General Reference Pages:
MythingLinks Search Engine
Cross-cultural, Multi-regional, Interdisciplinary Collections
General Reference Page  (online libraries, reference help, literary texts, world languages, word-lover sites, help on writing research papers, copyright information, film plots, themes, and/or films representing various historical periods)
Special Interest Sites for Pacifica Faculty, Students & Colleagues(includes Jung, Campbell, Freud, Eliade, Otto, Hillman, other depth psychologists, mysticism, anthropology, religious studies, archetypal perspectives, foundations for mythology & psychology, relevant journals, books, videos, etc.)
Teachers' Reference Page for Primary & Secondary School Education

Menu of Common Themes, East & West:

Animal Guides
Animal Deaths in Europe: Of Cows & Madness
Artists & Muses: The Creative Impulse
Creation Myths I
Creation Myths II
Creation Myths III
Crones & Sages
Dragons & Serpents
Food: Sacrality & Lore
 Land: Sacrality & Lore  (mountains, caves, labyrinths, spiral mounds, crop & stone circles, FengShui)
 Earth Day & Environmental Issues
 Earth Goddesses & Gods
Air: Sacrality & Lore (air, wind, sky, storms, clouds, weather lore)
Sky Goddesses & Gods
Fire: Sacrality & Lore (fire, northern lights, green-flashes, Elmo's Fire)
Fire Goddesses & Gods
Water: Sacrality & Lore(water, wells, springs, pools, lakes)
Floods & Rainbows: Mythologies & Science
Water Goddesses & Gods
Green Men
Nature Spirits of the World
Rituals of Birthing [forthcoming]
Rituals of Death & Dying
Rituals of Puberty
Rituals of Weather-Working: An experimental, on-going ritual in cyberspace
Sacred Theatre & Dance
Star Lore & Astrology
Symbols, Signs, & Runes
Time(calendars, clocks, natural cycles, attitudes toward time, & millennium issues)
rees & Plant Lore
Tricksters, Clowns, Magicians, Jesters & Fools
Wars, Weapns & Lies: The Dehumanizing Impulse
Weaving Arts & Lore (cosmic webs, spinning, spindles, clothing)

Down to Geographical Regions: Africa

Note: a complete Site Map as well as my email address
will be found on my home page.

This page created with Netscape Gold 3.01
Technical assistance: William Weeks

Text and Design:
Copyright © 1999-2007 by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.
All rights reserved unless noted.

Page designed w/pale web 23 October 1999; work begun 24-25 October 1999;
re-designed w/dark web 8 November 1999;
work continued 8-13 November 1999;
published 13 November 1999 to celebrate the first anniversary of Mything Links.

Latest updates: 11/14/99 (new link to spider myths, movies, comics, etc. added);
23 November 1999 (added the Baltic goddess Saule's link); 6 October 2000 (checked all links);
2 July 2001 (Ned.3.0 + Refs); 7 October 2001 (removed animation below); 8 Nov. 2001: reloaded from Netscape Gold as African "God's Eyebrow" image was missing;
1 December 2001: discovered Netscape Gold "ate" Nedstat on 11/8! -- so reloaded from new Netscape 4.79;
8 December 2001: Nedstat didn't "take" so trying again.
16 November 2002: updated 3 "Thorshof" links;
13 January 2003: added "ID"-tag to Medieval Household Weaving image.
3-4 April 2007: added small ad for Native American art.

28 April 2009: deleted American Indian Art ad.  The company, FYD ("Follow Your Dreams") that booked the ad didn't respond to my renewal request this year, which seemed odd, since they renewed right away last year.  I googled FYD today, found only one link, which did not go to them, and discovered that they're running a scam to get pages rated higher in google searches, or something.  Makes no sense to me but I want no part in a scam.  I am now removing all 7 ads on 7 different pages of mine.
[10/7/01: I removed this animated spinning wheel when I discovered that nearly 1500 people linked directly to it yesterday! -- such bandwidth theft and thoughtless abuse has now ruined it for everyone].
Magical animated spinning wheel
(FYI: hit "Reload" if it's stopped spinning by the time you reach it)
Designed specifically for and copyrighted © by Apple Hollow Farm
[Note: special permission has graciously been given for use on this Mything Links page only:
please respect this and do not copy the spinning wheel image.  Thank you.]

[Added 10/7/01: will get to these when I can...]

http://www47.pair.com/lindo/Textiles_Page.htm  ["Clothing of the Ancient Celts"]
http://www47.pair.com/lindo/Textile.htm: [More on Celts]
http://moas.atlantia.sca.org/topics/text.htm:  [cross-cultural textiles & weaving links: huge]
http://www2.kumc.edu/itc/staff/rknight/Fiber.htm: [medieval, Elizabethan]
http://www.lothene.demon.co.uk/crafts.html: ["Experimental Archaeology": weaving&leather; great photos]
http://www.marlamallett.com/links.htm:  [cross-cultural, annotated links]
http://costumes.org/pages/medievalinks.htm: [medieval costumes: comprehensive; slow-load]
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1841480614/qid=974618122/sr=1-1/105-1925663-2701538: [book]
http://www.civilization.ca/aborig/threads/thred01e.html: [clothing trads. in 3 indigenous cultures; Canadian]
http://www.uccs.edu/~cwetheri/NW/: [Navajo]
http://www.americana.net/weaving.html: [Navajo]
http://www.azjournal.com/navajo_weaving.htm: [Navajo]
http://www.navajorug.com/historicrugs.htm: [Navajo]
http://cator.hsc.edu/~kmd/caveman/projects/weave/: [class weaving projects]
http://www.dancinghummingbird.com/weaving/links.html: [comtemporary links]