28 August 2002 - 13 November 2002:
this page is still a work-in-progress -- many links remain unannotated -- please be patient!

MYTH*ING LINKS
An Annotated & Illustrated Collection of Worldwide Links to Mythologies,
Fairy Tales & Folklore, Sacred Arts & Sacred Traditions
Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.

GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS:

INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
OF north AMERICA

.....THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST.....
General


From the Smithsonian at: http://www.nmaa.si.edu/education/guides/pueblo/pueblo_map.html

http://lcweb.loc.gov/spcoll/181.html

This is a brief page for Zuni, Hopi, and Navajo specialists about the Peabody Museum Collection of Ethnological sound recordings, 1890s-1910s.  These include:
The first documented use of mechanical recording equipment for ethnological research was by Jesse Walter Fewkes, an anthropologist affiliated with the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Harvard University.... He took the device on subsequent expeditions among the Zuni and Hopi Indians of Arizona in 1890 and 1891 and published an influential series of articles on his work, beginning with "On the Use of the Phonograph in the Study of the Languages of American Indians," in Science (Ql.S35), v. 15, May 2, 1890, p. 267-69.... The collection also contains...recordings made by Washington Matthews approximately ten years earlier among the Navaho. The 264 wax cylinders have been duplicated on tape (AFS 14,737-14,754) and are described in notes and a concordance. The Peabody Museum has received tapes of the collection through exchange....
.....THE PUEBLO PEOPLES.....
OF NEW MEXICO


Pueblo Villages in New Mexico
From "Maps of New Mexico"
New Mexico's Department of Tourism
Note: if you go to this link, the map is clickable for brief  but good data on each Pueblo.

http://www.guestlife.com/newmexico/features/tocpueblos.html

From Guest Life: New Mexico comes a a page that provides a useful summary of the pueblos of New Mexico.  When the Spaniards first arrived in 1540, there were some 80 villages, or pueblos, and five different languages:
...Today’s Pueblo people still reside where Europeans first encountered them, but there are now 19 pueblos, from Taos in the northern Rio Grande Valley, to Isleta in the mid-Rio Grande Valley south of Albuquerque, and to Acoma, Zia and Zuni in the west near Grants and Gallup.  Each pueblo has a unique identity, is self-governing and independent of all other pueblos. But all share common elements of lifestyle and philosophy....
http://www.nmaa.si.edu/education/guides/pueblo/main.html
From the Smithsonian comes a page of Teachers' Resources on the Pueblo Peoples of the American Southwest.  Age level is 10-14 but the material can be adapted for other age groups.  Topic-links include: Introduction; Brief History of the Pueblo Indians; Map of Pueblos, Language, Region, and Lifestyle; Pueblo Dances; Paintings for Discussion; Artists' Biographies; Audiovisuals and Discography; Bibliography; Cultural Definitions and Glossary; Suggested Fiction; Suggested Activities; Symbols; Additional Web Resources.

I'm delighted to see a site like this.  The only major disapointment is the non-clickable thumbnail art.  Children, especially, to say nothing of the rest of us, deserve rich, generously-sized images.  You can't see the wonderful details otherwise!  Some bureaucrat evidently decided the government could not afford larger images on this Smithsonian website.  Personally, I'd rather see my taxes spent on art than Bush's wars, weapons, and environmental plundering.

http://www.nmhotels.com/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=4
         [URL updated 8/20/02]
[Added 22 September 2001]:   This site looks at dances and other events among both Pueblo and the more recent Navajo and Apache peoples.  It's sponsored by the New Mexico Lodging Association and includes useful phone numbers.  (Note: if you scroll down my page, you'll find a section on pueblo-only celebrations; this particular link is unique in that the Navajo and Apache are also included.)  Here's an excerpt from the opening:
Of New Mexico's two American Indian groups, the Pueblo Indians can trace their evolution from a prehistory among pit houses and cliff dwellings to stable village life.  Many of the pit houses and cliff dwellings can be seen today. The other group, the Athapascans, which include Apaches and Navajo, arrived later - just a couple of hundred years before Europeans....
_____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

Pueblo Dance-Ceremonies
in New Mexico
[Note: many of these links are double-listed on my Autumn Equinox pages for 2001 flg.]
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_____________________________________________________________________


Sun Basket Dance
PablitaVelarde (b.1918)
Santa Clara Pueblo
Currently in the Fred Jones Jr. Museum at the University of Oklahoma
http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues00/Co12302000/CO_12302000_Dance_Buffalo.htm
[Added 18 August 2001]: This is a page from the award-winning Canku Ota ("Many Paths"), a thoughtful, beautifully presented e-zine on North American Native traditions, past and current.  This particular page, "Dances with Buffaloes" by Suzanne Ruta, looks at buffalo, corn and rain dances among the Pueblo peoples of the southwestern United States.  It begins with the Christmas season but then compares the dramatic winter dances with the quieter rain and corn dances of summer and autumn.  The lively essay is well written and beautifully illustrated.

Note: Canku Ota's site is huge and designed for all age groups, with special sections for children. To explore further, here's the Home Page:  http://www.turtletrack.org/index.html

http://www.santaana.org/calendar.htm#September
[Added 18 August 2001]:  For those fortunate enough to be able to attend the harvest dances in the southwestern United States, I'm adding a handful of links with further information.  For those, like me, living too far away to attend, we can dream <smile>.  The above is a no frills page from the Pueblo of Santa Ana on dances in Central New Mexico:
There are eighteen Pueblos in addition to Santa Ana within the state of New Mexico. Visitors are usually welcome during annual events and feast days. Easy to reach -- especially in the Albuquerque area, between Albuquerque and Santa Fe, and between Albuquerque and Grants, New Mexico....
The link will take you to September through the rest of the year; scroll to the top for earlier months.
http://www.stlcc.cc.mo.us/fp/users/cmittler/Faces/dancecal.html
[Added 18 August 2001]:  From St. Louis (MO) Community College comes another no frills page on Pueblo Celebrations, "Yearly Calendar of Indian Dances and Events at the Pueblos."  Contacts are provided for further information.
http://www.guestlife.com/newmexico/events/eventsindian.html
[Added 18 August 2001]:  From Guest Life: New Mexico comes yet another Pueblo events calendar, similar to the preceding two but with nearly 2 dozen telephone contacts to specific pueblos -- since dates for these dances can change at a moment's notice, these contacts are especially valuable.  This is an online e-zine with links to well written (and illustrated) articles.
http://www.collectorsguide.com/nm/nmfa03.html
[Added 18 August 2001]:  Another no frills New Mexico events calendar, but this one includes essential data on the etiquette one needs to observe when visiting a pueblo.  It also includes telephone contacts and brief travel instructions for reaching each village.
  http://travel.roughguides.com/roughguides.html
        [URL updated 8/20/02]
[Added 18 August 2001]: This is a brief page on Taos (NM) Pueblo.  It looks at:
...the Feast of San Gerónimo at the end of September, when hundreds and even thousands of outsiders flock to join the general revelry....
A telephone number is included.  Nearby is a casino -- and I like the quote from an elder:
As one unapologetic elder remarked, “poverty was never a part of pueblo life until the Europeans came.”
[Revised 20 August 2002]: Note: the page has now been rewritten  -- although the new data is adequate, I prefer the earlier version and am keeping my original annotation.  The new page can only be reached from a pull-down menu at the new link (above).
http://208.154.71.60/bcom/eb/article/1/0,5716,119491+18+110496,00.html: [20 August 2002: old link -- now dead -- see below:]
      http://www.britannica.com
[20 August 2002:the first link above is dead.  Britannica is now a subscription service, although they do offer 72 free hours.   I tried to locate this page under "Pueblos," "Dance," "American Southwest," "Southwest," and "Pueblo Dance" -- none of these terms produced the article I sought.  I hope you have better luck!   I'm keeping my annotation regardless.]

[Added 16 August 2001]:From Britannica.com comes a marvelous page on ritual dance and music from the American Southwest, including traditional autumn dances.  It touches briefly (but intriguingly) on the Athabascan Navajo and Apache, and then offers a lengthy section comparing and contrasting the rituals of the Pueblo peoples.

...The polytheistic religion of the Pueblos resembles that of the ancient Aztecs and Maya. But their indigenous styles of music and dance appear very different from the aboriginal and contemporary styles of Latin America, even from those of the adjacent tribes of northern Mexico....
The page is literate, impressive.  At the bottom is an astounding collection of more Britannica links to other indigenous peoples' art and ritual in the Americas.  You could spend days here.
http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/zuni/cushing/cush06.htm
This is "Clowns, Priests, and Festivals of the Kâ'-kâ," an 1885 essay on Zuni dance-rituals by anthropologist Frank Cushing (1857-1900).  Fasts alternate with huge feasts.  Here, for example is a touching post-New Year's fast involved with honoring the dead:
... No fire is built out of doors during ten days, nor are many other things, allowable at other times, indulged in. The last night of the ten, however, is again full of ceremonial. Again the cooking-fires are busy. At daylight, however, they are all put out, and the cinders and ashes thrown to the winds of the open valley. Two nearly nude maskers of the dance may be seen in the twilight swiftly wending their way to a distant, lonely cañon, where the God of Fire is supposed to have once dwelt. There, with an ancient stick and shaft, they kindle tinder by drilling the two sticks together, and lighting a torch hurry it back to the great central estufa, where matrons, maidens and young men anxiously await the gift of New Fire. No sooner are the new flames kindled from this on the hearths of the households, than great baskets of food are cast into them, that the imperishable substance of life may be wafted upward into the outer world as food for the spirits of the ancestry and those who have died during the year just past. By no means unbeautiful is the sight of a gentle matron standing in prayer before the fireplace, dressed as if to meet beloved friends, and weeping softly to herself as she casts loaf after loaf unsparingly into the flames. Then, by all save the hereditary priests, who must continue their mortification of appetite six days longer, the great fast is broken....
By today's standards, Cushing's patronizing style is often disagreeable, yet his data remains useful.  At the main site are more of Cushing's essays, including several on the creation, decay, and regeneration of corn: http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/zuni/cushing/

.....THE HOPI OF ARIZONA.....


Mimbres Turtles
PablitaVelarde (b.1918)
Santa Clara Pueblo
Currently in the Fred Jones Jr. Museum at the University of Oklahoma

http://www.onlinepoetryclassroom.org/what/state.cfm?prmState=Arizona
[Added 6 November 2002]:  This is a page from "Online Poetry Classroom" featuring a brief introduction to the ancient poetry of the Arizona region followed by links to contemporary poets.  Here is an excerpt related to the Hopi and other Pueblo peoples:
...The Pueblo--an umbrella culture that consists of groups as diverse as Zuni, Tewa, and Hopi--was originally an agricultural civilization, one that constantly struggled with the threat of drought and sandstorm. Such elements are seen in the Pueblo's earliest oral poetry: songs that focus on rain, corn, and the land.  Water means life to a culture that is constantly faced with the threat of draught, and much of Pueblo poetry focuses on the cycles of life, the growing of corn, and the blossoming of clouds, as in this poem:

                     Rains for the harvest

                          Over there in your fields you have
                          Musk-melon flowers in the morning
                          Over there in your fields you have
                          Corn-tassel flowers in the morning.
                          In your fields now the water bird sings
                          And here in your village the fogs
                          And the black clouds come massing.
                          They come here to see! They come here to see!
                          Mbe'e a-ha we-o'e.

The page is brief, but it sets the tone for much that follows.
http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/az/navhopi.html
[Added 6 November 2002]:  "Navajo - Hopi Long Land Dispute" is a 1996-7 essay from the late Paula Giese (see my Search Engine for more of her webpages on my site), a remarkable Native American scholar.  In looking at the history of the issue, she provides her own detailed maps to make clear where 1000 year old Hopi shrines stand, and how drastically the Hopis' lands have been reduced for more than a century.  She opens with this statement:
Cultural differences, a history of U.S. interference, expanding reservation populations, and Peabody Coal are responsible for the longstanding struggle between Navajo and Hopi tribes for certain land and resources....
The lengthy essay looks with unusual clarity at painful, complex issues surrounding this land dispute. Giese spent a decade studying these issues from books, newspapers, websites, forums, and e-mail lists.  In general, she found that these media have overwhelmingly sided with the Navajo.  When she was writing in 1996-7, there was no official Hopi website on the Hopi's own position, so Giese simply reported on what she had found in support of the Hopi without claiming to represent what the Hopi themeselves might think or feel about her perspective.  One comes away from a close reading of her detailed investigation with a strong feeling that both peoples, but especially the Hopi, have been  victimized by corrupt laws, officials, and greedy businessmen on all sides.  Here is a chilling excerpt about Peabody Coal:
...[T]he Navajo tribe could be expected to be more compliant and friendly to Peabody Coal than Hopis with newly-affirmed Navajo subsurface rights....

...Not only was the Black Mesa to be strip-mined, but the Mohave power plant, 275 miles away was to be -- and is -- fed by a liquified slurry of crushed coal pumped along a pipeline that uses 3,000 gallons a minute of precious desert aquifer water, laid down in the deep rocks millions of years ago, before this land was desert. This irreplaceable water is the most valuable of the subsurface rights Peabody acquired access to, and its profligate use is the most threatening to long-term survival of the entire southwest. The water pumping all takes place near the Black Mesa mine (though it can suck water from hundreds of miles away, the entire aquifer). The Peabody Kayenta mine feeds the power plant at Page with dry coal on coal trains. But for Black Mesa, Peabody counts only the cheaper method of delivery, which maximizes its profits, not counting the cost of stolen water to all life in the southwest....

...[I]t is the Hopi who have been the most outspoken in their opposition to the mine and [who] have filed suit in federal court to halt the mining. Should the mine be stopped, Arizona would lose over half a billion dollars in tax revenues....

In addition to exposing greed and corruption, Giese also takes angry aim at well financed, white, New Age ("Nuage") foundations who add to the problems by touting so-called Hopi elders in an attempt to further blur the very real and sobering problems faced by the Hopi:
...Where the Indian press has chosen to support what they describe as elders who could resolve things, the Hopi elders people know about turn out to be a highly unrepresentative and vigorously publicized small group of individuals from Hotevilla. These individuals have in effect been created as external  public spokesmen by the efforts -- sustained over 30 years -- of a California-based group of well-financed white people. This group, the Committee for Traditional Indian Land and Life (and its associated recently-founded Touch the Earth Foundation) began operations in 1967, the year Black Mesa mining began and has shown -- for a simple bunch of airhead Nuagers -- remarkable tenacity and consistent disruptive targeting focussed entirely upon the Hopi Nation, over the 30-year period of its existence....

...In addition to this type of disruption, another consistent theme over 30 years has been repeated attacks on the Hopi Tribal Council -- no matter who they are, or what policies they try to pursue. It should be observed that over these years, a number of council people have at least as good a claim -- some feel a better claim -- to call themselves traditionalists (because ceremonies and initiations were never halted nor lost, as some have been at Hotevilla). This group over the long period seems to have quietly attended their religious duties, while also trying to help the Hopi people in practical ways to survive difficult economic and political times. They do not present themselves to the world as prophetic elders, missionaries of peace or mouthing vacuous pieties of world salvation. No well-funded groups of whites carries on public relations campaigns for them....

Giese then provides a long list of links, many from the above two New Age groups -- she critiques each link at length, pointing out phoney claims as well as outright fraud, which makes her page an invaluable resource.  She concludes that the result of such "Nuage" groups has been:
...30 years of well-financed, targeted disruption, desecration and manipulation of Hopi religious concepts and ceremonies through vulnerable Hotevilla individuals promoted externally, flattered as elders, marketed as prophets, spokesmen.
http://www.recycles.org/hopi/news/solar.htm
[Added 6 November 2002]: On the above site from Paula Giese, there's a broken link to an excellent site -- I found an updated link for the same material and now cite Giese's own annotation for it:
"Hopi Electrician Debbie Tewa installs solar electricity hookups at reservation villages"; she lives at Hotevilla. This story, written by Ojibwe Winona LaDuke, gives an entirely different and far saner picture of life on the Hopi reservation today, showing how cultural needs and desires cause adaptations of technology, such as this use of solar energy to generate electricity in independent and non-intrusive fashion. LaDuke, savvy Indian lady long involved in land retrieval efforts and Native environmental struggles, presents a daily life (and culture) picture very different from the one these southern California weirdo manipulators have been pushing for 30 years.
I found the article both fascinating and hopeful.  Here's an excerpt:
...One third of Hopi's villages have refused to accept electrical power lines into their village areas. The Hopi object to the electricity on several grounds. Village leaders are concerned about preserving their sovereignty as village entities. They see their people becoming "hooked" on public utility power, only to be compromised when the people are unable to afford the ever-increasing monthly payments. "They don't allow powerlines into the villages, because the utilities will also have the right of way", Debbie explains. Village leaders "think that if we don't pay up the bills, they'll take even more land. So when you get your own system, it's yours, there's no powerline, no right of way into the villages, so we have our own land."

Other arguments against the power are spiritual and cultural. The Hopi Foundation explains that "the force field of electricity emanating from the powerlines is considered to be disruptive to the atmosphere, ambiance, and balance of the plaza and ceremonial areas, at the same time blocking the aesthetics of the sky and the panoramic vistas of the mesas"...

http://www.hopi.nsn.us/
When Paula Giese was writing in 1996-7, there was no official Hopi website.  Now there is -- the "Official Website of the Hopi Tribe"  [rest tba]
http://www.carnegiemuseums.org/cmnh/exhibits/north-south-east-west/hopi/
"The Hopi of the Southwest": Excellent general info [rest tba]
http://www.cinprograms.org/people/northern/hopi.html
[General info]
http://www.nau.edu/~hcpo-p/
Created in March 1997, this award-winning Hopi Cultural Preservation Office (HCPO) Home Page comes from graduate students in Anthropology at Northern Arizona University.  [rest tba]  For detailed Hopi B&W map, see: http://www.nau.edu/~hcpo-p/images/HOPIMAP.GIF?
http://www.cultures.com/features/Anasazi/roads.html
"Mysterious Roads" of the Anasazi.  [rest tba]
http://www.tmeg.com/artifacts/wupatki/wupatki.htm
"Wupatki: City of the Hopi"  [rest tba]
http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/samples/sam225.htm
An excellent excerpt from the book, Pages From Hopi History, by Harry C. James.  [rest tba]
http://www.cpluhna.nau.edu/Research/hack.htm
An abstract: The Changing Physical Environment of the Hopi Indians of Arizona.  Source: Hack, J.T. 1942.   [rest tba]
http://www.cpluhna.nau.edu/People/hopi.htm
Hopi -- fine general info.  [rest tba]
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Hopi Stories, Authors, and Language
__________________________________________________


Yaponcha, the Hopi Wind God
By Linda Hastings (see site directly below)
http://www.bedtime-story.com/bedtime-story/hopi-windgod.htm
[Added 6 November 2002]:  This is "Hopi: Yaponcha - The Wind God," a Hopi tale humorously retold by Glenn Welker for a site offering bedtime stories for children of all ages.  The cast of characters includes Yaponcha, whose winds blow away the soil and seeds of the Hopis; the unhappy Hopis; and two clever grandsons of Spider Woman.  The page begins with a brief "factoid" on the Hopi -- here's one portion of it:
...The Hopi speak a Shoshonean dialect of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family.  Hapitu or Hopi meaning the "peaceful ones" were the only Shoshones to adopt a pueblo culture. Hopi culture is regarded as one of the best-preserved native American cultures in North America. A sedentary farming people, the Hopi have an elaborate and all-pervasive religious system which has been their answer to insecurity in a difficult environment, and throughout the year one ceremonial follows another in rapid succession....
(Note: for this same story, but differently formatted, see Glenn Welker's own site at: http://www.indigenouspeople.org/natlit/windgod.htm)
http://www.indigenouspeople.org/natlit/howtheho.htm
[Added 13 November 2002]:  Re-told by Glenn Welker, "How the Hopi Indians Reached Their World" is a tale of emergence, death, mischief, and enduring strength.  Here's an excerpt:
...Only a small number of people were able to climb up from their secret hiding places and emerge into the Fourth World.  Legends reveal the Grand Canyon is where these people emerged. From there they began their search for the homes the Two Brothers intended for them.  These few were the Hopi Indians that now live on the Three Mesas of northeastern Arizona.
http://www.indigenouspeople.org/natlit/firstjou.htm
[Added 13 November 2002]:  Re-told by Glenn Welker, this is "First Journey through Grand Canyon," a tale that begins with a young hero's quest for the destination of the Colorado River; it ends at the ocean, where a kindly Spider Woman's aid leads to the founding of the Hopi Snake Clan.
...On and on Wise Son travelled, winding his way out of steep canyons and through flat  meadowlands. He caught fresh fish for his main food supply. One day, Wise Son noticed a change in the taste of the water. It was salty and he knew that he should not drink it. Then to his surprise, he suddenly floated into a great body of water that extended as far as he could see. He had discovered the place where the mighty river ended, in the ocean where the sun sleeps!

He saw an island and guided his boat to its shore. There was a house nearby. Upon investigation, he found only a very small entrance door. He knocked and asked, "Please, will you let me come in and see you?"

Spider Woman, who possessed supernatural power, lived there and answered, "Please make the hole large enough and enter."  This, Wise Son did and sat down inside. He presented to Spider Woman one of his prayer sticks and told her of his adventure to find the place where the river ended....

http://www.indigenouspeople.org/natlit/howthegr.htm
[Added 13 November 2002]:  Re-told by Glenn Welker, this is a Hopi tale of darkness, a yearning for light, and the creative impulse of art: "How the Great Chiefs Made the Moon and the Sun."
http://www.indigenouspeople.org/natlit/theclans.htm
Stories:  "Origins of the Clans"  [rest tba]
http://www.indigenouspeople.org/natlit/rooster.htm
[Added 13 November 2002]:  Re-told by Glenn Welker, this is "The Rooster, the Mockingbird and the Maiden," a tale about a maiden's independence and a curious contest between two of her male rivals, each of whom claims to be able to make the sun rise.  Which one will she wed, the rooster or the mockingbird?
http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/books/bid324.htm
[Added 13 November 2002]:  This is G. M. Mullett's Spider Woman Stories, a book of tales about this wise ancestor.  From a review published on this page:
"This is a fine introduction to Hopi mythology and values. It recreates an authentic poetic spirit and makes the reader eager to read more Hopi tales" —New Mexico Humanities Review
http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/samples/sam324.htm
[Added 13 November 2002]:  From the above Spider Woman Stories comes a lovely excerpt, "The Children and the Hummingbird," an endearing, poignant Hopi tale about two starving children, a toy hummingbird that comes alive, and the risks taken by that hummingbird to protect his young charges.
http://www.crystalinks.com/spiderwoman.html
Stories:  Two stories of Spider Woman [rest tba]
http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t35
This is a listing of links to more than a dozen Hopi authors as well as online resources about the Hopi Tribe  [rest tba]
http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/books/bid1065.htm
A Hopi-Dictionary from U. of AZ Press.  [rest tba]
http://www.cs.vu.nl/~dick/biddulph/Hopi/Hopi.html
Booklet on: Hopi - Survey of an Uto-Aztecan Language  [rest tba]
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Hopi Kachinas & Seasonal Celebrations
__________________________________________________

http://www.3mesas.com/hopi/main.html

Entry level page on the Kachinas.  [rest tba]
http://www.peabody.harvard.edu/katsina/calendar.html
"Rainmakers from the Gods/The Hopi Calendar" [rest tba]
http://www.peabody.harvard.edu/katsina/default.html

http://www.peabody.harvard.edu/katsina/introduction.html

http://www.ariztlan.org/iview/yava/yava.htm

Interview with Aaron Yava, Hopi Kachina Maker & Artist  [rest tba]
__________________________________________________

Other Hopi Links
__________________________________________________

http://fraktali.849pm.com/text/hopi/hopilinks.html

[Added 6 November 2002]:  This is a huge collection of unnotated links -- some are broken, others I've annotated for my own page, but there are still a ton remaining for those who wish to explore further.  Be cautious with the "Hopi Prophecy" sites, however -- as Paule Giese points out above, some of these are awash in hidden agendas.
http://www.hopi.nsn.us/Pages/Tourism/Hopi_4.htm
Tourist info from the Official website of the Hopi Tribe [rest tba]
http://www.psv.com/hopi.html
Tourist info for Hopi Cultural Center's museum, restaurant, and hotel.  [rest tba]
.....THE ATHAPASKANS.....
(Apache and Navajo Peoples)


Apache Puberty Ritual

http://www.ancientsites.com/~Tika_Yupanqui/apache/apachesunrise.htm
This intelligent, thorough, and evocative site is Becoming Woman: Apache Female Puberty Sunrise Ceremony:
The Apache Sunrise Ceremony or na'ii'ees is an arduous communal four-day ceremony that Apache girls of the past and present experience soon after their first menstruation. Through numerous sacred ceremonies, dances, songs, and enactments, the girls become imbued with the physical and spiritual power of White Painted Woman, and embrace their role as women of the Apache nation....

...Most Apache women who have experienced the Sunrise Ceremony say afterwards that it significantly increased their self-esteem and confidence. When it ended, they no longer felt themselves to be a child; they truly experienced themselves as "becoming woman...."

The site offers excellent data on the ceremony's myth, history, and preparation along with a good collection of quotes and photos.  There is a fine comparison between the related Apache and Navajo puberty rituals.  There is also a great page of links to Apache, Navajo, and other Native American websites, books and videos.  (Note: some of the web links are dead -- of the others, I took the five I liked best and annotated them directly below; many more remain, however, if you wish to browse........)
http://www.peabody.harvard.edu/maria/intro2.html
This is "The Children of Changing Woman," a sensitive introduction by Ernestine Cody, a Western Apachean woman and curator of the "Changing Woman Exhibit" at Harvard's Peabody Museum.
http://www.peabody.harvard.edu/maria/Sunrisedance.html
Again from Harvard's Peabody Museum comes this excellent, detailed page on the ceremony as well as its underlying sacred narrative:
...Changing Woman's power grants longevity. Although she grows old, she is always able to recapture her youth by walking towards the east and turning around counterclockwise four times. This  power is transferred to the pubescent girl through songs sung by the diiyin ('one who has power'), the medicine man....
There are also B&W photos accompanying the text.
http://www.peabody.harvard.edu/maria/Mandy.html
Again from the Peabody comes Mandy Begay's very touching first person account of a friend's puberty ritual in which she too participated:
Ever since I was old enough to understand the meaning of the Sunrise Dance, I was told that it was essential for me as a growing woman to have one. I hated the idea, and I couldn't understand why dancing at sunrise for two days, 63 songs, would make a difference in my life. I felt it was only some stupid ritual. I didn't want to make a fool of myself by dancing in front of the community, and what would I get out of it anyway? Therefore, it came to me as a surprise when I had strong feelings while I participated in one as an assistant for my friend Laura's Sunrise Dance....

...I didn't feel anything . . . I let my body dance to the music, and once that happened, I was gone . . . Everything that was in front of me, I didn't see . . . I was taken by the meaning of the Sunrise Dance.  This dance was to help build my endurance, and it would symbolize my womanhood. I started this dance as a child, but I would end it as a woman....

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Delphi/2897/
Fine photography but text needs to be read with a grain of salt, despite its obvious sincerity.  [Rest is tba]
http://www.library.arizona.edu/images/dobyns/cpt8-A.htm
THE ROYAL FORT OF ST. RAFAEL AT TUBAC: how the Spaniards coped with Athapaskans.  [tba]
 
[More to come -- please be patient]

__________________________________________________

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Cross-cultural, Multi-regional, Interdisciplinary Collections
General Reference Page  (online libraries, reference help, literary texts, world languages, word-lover sites, help on writing research papers, copyright information, film plots, themes, and/or films representing various historical periods)
Special Interest Sites for Pacifica Faculty, Students & Colleagues(includes Jung, Campbell, Freud, Eliade, Otto, Hillman, other depth psychologists, mysticism, anthropology, religious studies, archetypal perspectives, foundations for mythology & psychology, relevant journals, books, videos, etc.)
Teachers' Reference Page for Primary & Secondary School Education
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Myth*ing Links Home Page
Note: to report broken links or if you have comments or suggestions,
my e-mail address is at the bottom of my Home Page.

This page created with Netscape Gold
Technical assistance: William Weeks
Text and Design:
Copyright 2002-2009 by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.
Free counter and web stats
Page begun 24-25 August 2002 (shifted several Pueblo links from last year's Autumn Equinox page
and Athabaskan links from puberty page --
worked all night til 6:30am, in memory of Dan Noel, who once lived in this part of the country).
Published 28 August 2002, 2:15am, as a work-in-progress
(had to do this since I link to this page from Autumn Equinox 2002 and didn't want the link to be dead).
6 November 2002: added many new Hopi links & resumed grokking;
13 November 2002, 11:49pm: more grokking; Nedstated; then, even though this is still a work-in-progress,
I launched the site "officially" to mark the start of the 5th year of Myth*ing Links.
17 September 2009, 11:40pm: deleted PGI links; updated Nedstat/Motigo.

STILL TO BE GROKKED
(Note: not all will make the final cut):

http://indy4.fdl.cc.mn.us/~isk/art/beads/turquois.html

http://archaeology.about.com/education/archaeology/msubsouthwest.htm

http://swanet.org/

http://swanet.org/gender.html

http://www.americana.net/weaving.html

http://www.navajorug.com/historicrugs.htm

http://www.azjournal.com/navajo_weaving.htm

http://www.dreamscape.com/morgana/navajo.htm

http://www.lunaea.com/goddess/magic/cwlinks.html

http://www.whitestareagle.com/natlit/dineway.htm

http://atlan.org/articles/navajos/index.html

http://www.trekwest.com/thezuni/corn_maiden.html

http://ucsu.colorado.edu/~photiadi/paper.html

http://www.ipl.org/exhibit/pottery/gallery.htm

Internet Public Library: Pueblo Pottery
http://swcenter.fortlewis.edu/inventory/JicColls.htm#Oral
 Southwest oral history collection.
http://www.ewebtribe.com/NACulture/stories.htm
Good source for many Native American tales.


http://www.google.com/search?q=%22Changing+Woman%22+&btnG=Google+Search&safe=off

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Navajo+myths

.............
Natseelit
(from Sandra Stanton's "Sacred Corn")
SELECTED NAVAJO REFERENCES
Farella, John R.  The Main Stalk: A Synthesis of Navajo Philosophy.  Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1984.

Franciscan Fathers.  An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Navaho Language.  Saint Michaels, AZ: 1910.

Klah, Hasteen, and Mary C. Wheelwright. Navaho Creation Myth: The Story of the Emergence.  Santa Fe, New Mexico: Museum of Navajo Ceremonial Art, 1942.

Jenks, Kathleen.  "Changing Woman: The Navajo Therapist Goddess." Psychological Perspectives, Autumn 1986, published by the Jung Institute of Los Angeles.

McNeley, James Kale.  Holy Wind in Navajo Philosophy.  Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1981.

Reichard, Gladys A.  Navaho Religion: A Study of Symbolism.  Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1974/1983.

Reichard, Gladys A.  Prayer: The Compulsive Word.  New York: J. J. Augustin, 1944.

Witherspoon, Gary.  Language and Art in the Navajo Universe.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.

Zolbrod, Paul G.  Dine bahane': The Navajo Creation Story.  Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.