EURASIA / CENTRAL ASIA
AFGHAN CITIES & REGIONS, ETHNICITIES & RELIGIONS,
FOLK TRADITIONS, CONTEMPORARY ARTS, GENERAL INFO
AFGHAN HISTORY & CULTURE:
PREHISTORIC, PRE-ISLAMIC, & ISLAMIC UP TO THE 18th CENTURY
AFGHAN HISTORY & CULTURE:
18th CENTURY AND BEYOND
AFGHANISTAN: PRE- & POST-9/11
~~~ PART FOUR ~~~
PRE- AND POST-9/11
Related Myth*ing Links Pages:
New York City, 11 September 2001: Gaelic Blessing
New York City, 11 September 2001: Many Voices
Letter from an Afghan-American
Letter from a Star Wars Expert: What Can We Do About Terrorism?
The Crone Papers: Notes on the Mideast
Wars, Weapons, and Lies: The Dehumanizing Impulse
[Added 10 March 2010: from unknown 2009 source]
10 March 2010:
Like millions around the world, I am distressed by the continuing death toll of civilians caused by military thinking in the midst of appalling corruption on all sides. All sides. The deaths of soldiers, regardless of age, gender, nationality or ethnicity, keep mounting without making any substantive changes for the better. This is insanity. I started this page in the immediate wake of 9/11 with a contemporary war-focus. After nearly a decade, it is time to shift from war-focus to people-focus -- their land, history, cultures, and arts. Therefore, the page's original opening sections on 9/11 as well as the USA's botched military involvement dating back to Soviet control of Afghanistan, will now be found here, on this last of 4 pages on Afghanistan. PAGE ONE will retain what used to be the 2nd half of this opening page. FYI: Many of the 2001 links below may be broken by now. If you need to find one, try pasting its link into the Web Archive at: http://www.archive.org/web/web.php
16 September 2001, 3:50am (PDT)
+ additions 17 September 2001:
In the wake of the terrorist attack on New York City and Washington, D.C., Afghanistan and her protection of Osama bin Laden have become the focus of a growing and ominous threat. Many Afghans immediately began fleeing to Pakistan until, according to one news report I heard this weekend, the United States asked Pakistan to close her borders with Afghanistan. This measure was designed to bring pressure upon the Taliban government of Afghanistan to turn over Osama bin Laden. Yet what evidence do we have that the Taliban have ever had any concern for the oppressed, non-Taliban majority of Afghanistan? Their brutality toward women is well known [see links below]. Their scorn for ancient art, clearly demonstrated when they blew up 2000 year old sacred Buddhist sculptures in the face of worldwide outrage, is equally well known [see links below].
The non-Taliban are an impoverished, frightened people. Desperation may have driven some to support the Taliban. Can we blame them? Will bombing convince them that the United States is right, or will it further entrench them in a despairing loyalty to their local oppressors?
In my view, a better solution, or "revenge," would be to match Osama bin Laden's fortune, dollar for dollar, and then get our Middle Eastern allies to do the same. While bin Laden continues to use his fortune to train terrorists, we -- i.e., Arab nations, Israel, and the USA -- could use our combined fortune and go into the wretched Palestinian refugee camps and build beautiful little villages, filled with fountains, orange trees, olive groves -- and, above all, filled with hope. We could then move on to Afghanistan and do the same there, and in Pakistan, and keep on going, and going.
Would this not shrink bin Laden's supply of angry young men? Would this not do more than all our military strikes to end terrorism? I know that such a plan is unlikely to be heard, especially in our passion for capturing bin Laden "alive or dead" (George W. Bush's words on 17 September 2001). Yet at least I have to give voice to it. (For more on this, see the follow-up on my 18 September 2001 Crone Papers: Notes on the Mideast.)
Do any of our governments, east or west, ever learn? Can the cycles of violence ever be stopped? I have no answers that would make sense to any of these leaders, not mine, not theirs. But permit me to share with you what I have discovered about Afghanistan.......
Open Letter from Afghan-American, Tamim Ansary
"A burqa clad woman and her child leave Afghanistan at the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan in Torkham, Pakistan, Saturday, Sept. 15, 2001. Thousands of refugees fled Afghanistan on Saturday from fear that the U.S. may strike terrorist targets in Afghanistan for the attacks on the U.S. on Tuesday. Afghanistan, is believed to be harboring Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden, the key suspect in the airborne strikes on New York and Washington."
(AP Photo/John McConnico)
First, I'm opening with an extraordinary, thoughtful and chillingly realistic letter from Tamim Ansary. I received permission to publish it as a special Myth*ing Links page. If you read nothing else on my webpage, please read this.http://www.rawa.org/index.php
This is a clear statement from the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA), dated September 14, 2001:http://dir.yahoo.com/Regional/Countries/Afghanistan/Society_and_Culture/Religion_and_Spirituality/Faiths_and_Practices/Islam/...While we once again announce our solidarity and deep sorrow with the people of the US, we also believe that attacking Afghanistan and killing its most ruined and destitute people will not in any way decrease the grief of the American people. We sincerely hope that the great American people could DIFFERENTIATE between the people of Afghanistan and a handful of fundamentalist terrorists. Our hearts go out to the people of the US....The page also quietly reminds us that it was the U.S. who created the Taliban (see other links below), a crucial fact that we should never forget. So many times, all over the world, we have trained and armed soldiers in distant lands and then walked away once victory was won, leaving a rag-tag army to fend for itself. Should we be surprised when these armed, desperate, disillusioned men turn against us and become terrorists?
President Bush initially called the campaign against these terrorists one of "infinite justice." Personally, the justice I'd like to see is poetic justice -- which is to say, I wish the UN and the US would find a way to empower the women of RAWA to rule their land. The Afghan men, truly, are ferocious, brave warriors but they've shown little ability to govern wisely. Keep them as bodyguards, but let the women rule, teach the children, run the hospitals and science labs, oversee business and law, tend the grapes, make the wines, weave the rugs, and heal the land. RAWA women risk beheading by the Taliban every time they teach young girls to read -- they're clearly as brave and determined as their male counterparts. But even more significantly, they're focused, not on death and martyrdom, but on life.
[For additional links on Afghan women, see: http://search.yahoo.com/search?p=afghanistan+women&rs=1.
Also see Afghanistan Online's excellent page at: http://www.afghan-web.com/woman/.
For exceptional, haunting photos of Afghan women, both pre-Taliban and afterwards, don't miss Postcards from Hell's 3-page series beginning at: http://www.ciriello.com/46women1.html.]
These are Yahoo's category-links to contemporary Islamic and political movements in Afghanistan -- they include sites focused on the Taliban and the Northern Alliance. Click on any of these categories and you'll find a briefly annotated collection of relevant links.http://www.afghan-network.net/
The Toronto-based Afghan Network is an excellent site with well-organized subsections -- a great place for browsing [some of their links are scattered throughout this page]. Due to the tragedy of 11 September 2001, they have posted the following message:http://education.yahoo.com/search/be?lb=t&p=url%3Aa/afghanistanAfghan Network condemns these horrifying attacks on CIVILIANS in the World Trade Center and the hijacked commercial planes and our condolences go out to all the families of the victims. We are shocked and angered by such brutality and share all the emotions of fellow American citizens about these attacks. We pray that the perpetrators of this terrible crime be brought swiftly to justice. We commend the statements of Attorney General John Ashcroft, Secretary of State Colin Powell and numerous senators, Congressmen who have cautioned against attempts to stigmatize the Afghan-American and American Muslim communities or blame them for this tragedy. We urge American citizens and the American media to follow their example and not assign any form of collective guilt against communities for the crimes of individuals. We ask the citizens of the US not make general & quick judgments and point fingers at Afghans without conclusion....
From The Britannica Concise comes a succinct overview of background data on Afghanistan. For example:http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/south_asia/country_profiles/newsid_1162000/1162668.stm...About half the people are of Pashtun ancestry [FYI: the Taliban are of this group]; other ethnic groups include Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Hazaras. Languages: Pashto, Dari (a form of Persian) (official)....
This is "Country Profile: Afghanistan" from BBC News, a fine overview plus a "Fact Sheet" covering a number of categories. Here's an excerpt from the overview:http://www.afghan-web.com/politics/Its strategic position sandwiched between the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent along the ancient "Silk Route" means that Afghanistan has long been fought over - despite its rugged and forbidding terrain. It was at the centre of the so-called "Great Game" in the 19th century when Imperial Russia and the British Empire in India vied for influence. And it became a key Cold War battleground after thousands of Soviet troops intervened in 1979 to prop up a pro-communist regime, leading to a major confrontation that drew in the US and Afghanistan's neighbours.
But the outside world eventually lost interest after the withdrawal of Soviet forces, while the country's protracted civil war dragged on. A third of the Afghan population has fled abroad - despairing of a future at home....
The Taleban - drawn from the Pashtun majority - are opposed by an alliance of factions drawn mainly from Afghanistan's minority communities and based in the north. The Taleban - now controlling about 90% of Afghanistan - are recognised as the legitimate government by only three countries....
From Afghanistan Online comes a site on general Afghan politics, including a Who's Who; various articles analyzing the current situation; history; constitutions of the past; and "Afghan Political Groups: Official Websites."http://emperors-clothes.com/docs/anatomy.htm
..... Continuing the theme of the U.S. role in Afghanistan (see RAWA site above), this comes from Emperor's Clothes, a 1992 report, "Washington's Backing of Afghan Terrorists: Deliberate Policy."The Bear-Trap: Afghanistan's Untold Story: [Updated 11/7/07 & again 7/21/09: used amazon copies now are c. $200 each!]...Washington was no distant financier of the Afghan terrorists, unaware of how its money was being spent. Rather, it controlled the action. Today [i.e., 1992], Washington publicly condemns Islamist terrorism but this is two-faced for at the same time Washington and its partners continue to create, support and manage Islamist terrorist and related groups (for instance, the 'Kosovo Liberation Army' terrorists). For Washington, organized terror is a weapon of Empire....Then follows Steve Coll's July 19, 1992 report in the Washington Post. An excerpt:...How the Reagan administration decided to go for victory in the Afghan war between 1984 and 1988 has been shrouded in secrecy and clouded by the sharply divergent political agendas of those involved. But with the triumph of the mujaheddin rebels over Afghanistan's leftist government in April and the demise of the Soviet Union, some intelligence officials involved have decided to reveal how the covert escalation was carried out.The site will be a real eye-opener, especially for those Americans who believe that the world's only "evil-doers" live elsewhere. For the full text of Yousaf's The Bear Trap, see below.....
The most prominent of these former intelligence officers is Yousaf, the Pakistani general who supervised the covert war between 1983 and 1987 and who last month published in Europe and Pakistan a detailed account of his role and that of the CIA, titled "The Bear Trap" .... [M]ore than a dozen senior Western officials...[have] confirmed Yousaf's disclosures and elaborated on them....
"Afghan children play on a burnt-out Soviet army tank, in the village of Malaspa,
Panjshir Valley, September 15, 2001...." (REUTERS/Alexander Nemenov/POOL)
..... For a closer, intimate look at Afghanistan's recent, tangled history, this is an online e-book, The Bear Trap: Afghanistan's Untold Story by Brigadier Mohammad Yousaf and Major Mark Adkin. The "Bear" of the title is Russia and the book concerns a very personal account of the fight against the Soviet Union with the often peculiar help of the American CIA (also see above). It is a soldier's well written, lively, hard-hitting, somber account. I was intrigued by what I had time to read. This is from the conclusion of the "Role of the CIA":http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/interview.html...Let me finish on a positive note. Notwithstanding all I have said, on balance the CIA's contributions have played a vital role in the conduct of the Afghan Jehad. Without the backing of the US and Saudi Arabia the Soviets would still be entrenched in that Country. Without the intelligence provided by the CIA many battles would have been lost, and without the CIA's training of our Pakistani instructors the Mujahideen would have been fearfully ill-equipped to face, and ultimately defeat, a superpower....There are chilling vignettes -- for example, the arrival of CIA-purchased rusty, broken guns from Egypt (in the "Role of the CIA" chapter). If you want an on-the-ground report of the Afghan war against the Russians, this site is invaluable.
This is "Hunting Bin Laden," a page from PBS's Frontline program (it includes video clips for those with high tech computers). This particular page is a pair of May 1998 interviews with Osama bin Laden. From PBS' introduction:http://www.usip.org/oc/sr/sr_afghan.htmlIn the first part of this interview which occurred in May 1998, a little over two months before the U.S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania, Osama bin Laden answers questions posed to him by some of his followers at his mountaintop camp in southern Afghanistan. In the latter part of the interview, ABC reporter John Miller is asking the questions....I found this difficult to read. It sounds so sincere, almost hypnotic. Yet I can't divorce it from what we have learned since 1998 about this man. Thus, I was shocked when John Miller told bin Laden that he was the Middle East's Teddy Roosevelt, who also gathered his own hand-picked army to fight against oppression. Miller's reaction is, perhaps, a measure of bin Laden's dangerous charisma -- and I had to remind myself that this interview comes from 1998 and Miller clearly did not grasp the depth of hatred in his disarmingly gentle host.
There are a number of linked pages here, including a series of September 2001 interviews with people familiar with bin Laden.
From the United States Institute of Peace (undated but probably 1999-2000) comes this special report, "The Taliban and Afghanistan: Implications for Regional Security and Options for International Action." It includes summaries of reports from five panelists (including a pro-Taliban member). Here are several excerpts to clarify a few of the complexities. First, recent background:http://www.afghan-info.com/Afghistory.htm...For more than twenty years, war has consumed Afghanistan. In 1979, the Soviet Union launched an invasion of the country in order to prop up a pro-communist regime in Kabul. The United States and Pakistan played leading roles backing various Afghan guerrilla forces, known collectively as "mujahideen" (religious warriors), which gradually wore down the Soviet occupying force. Afghanistan's civil war continued after a Soviet pullout in 1989 as various mujahideen factions fought to fill the power vacuum. In the past four years, a newer group called the Taliban has gained control of most of Afghanistan. The Taliban, whose name means "students," have their roots in the Pakistan-based seminaries established for Afghan refugees during the Soviet occupation.... The core of the Taliban are from the Pashtun ethnic group, the largest single group in Afghanistan but still a minority of the population. Pashtuns are also a significant ethnic group in Pakistan, where they are heavily represented in the military....
"A masked Muslim fundamentalist takes part in an anti-U.S. demonstration
in Islamabad September 15, 2001...." (REUTERS/Zahid Hussein)
Here is further data on the notorious Taliban:...The Taliban are championed as the bearers of peace and the saviors of Afghan sovereignty by some; however, the rise of this largely rural, Pashtun-dominated Islamic fundamentalist movement is provoking wider regional fears of conflict and instability. Its version of Islamic law is considered the most draconian in the world, and it has been denounced by avowedly Islamic states such as Saudi Arabia and Iran.... Afghanistan poses an enormous challenge to an international community distracted by other priorities and lacking effective policy options for containing the dangerous spillover of Afghanistan's political, military, and social upheaval into neighboring states....
"Burqa clad women leave Afghanistan at the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan in Torkham, Pakistan, Saturday, Sept. 15, 2001. Women in Afghanistan are forced to cover themselves from head to toe with the burqa. Thousands are fleeing Afghanistan...."
(AP Photo/John McConnico)
Here is still more -- what I find most interesting is the view that the Taliban are shaped far more by "rural tribal mores" than by Islam:...They have imposed a highly restrictive form of Islamic law throughout Afghanistan which Muslim and non-Muslim observers have described as inhumane. Some see the Taliban's efforts to be not so much Islamic as an attempt to impose rural tribal mores onto the rest of the country. International concern is mounting about the treatment of Afghan women, who are usually denied schooling, medical care, and freedom to travel except under strict conditions....I also had not realized how deeply they are involved with the opium trade:... The Taliban reportedly support their regime partly from profits in the opium trade.... Sharp increases in Afghan production have left Afghanistan lagging behind only Burma as the world's largest producer of opium products in the world.... The two countries combined account for 90 percent of opium production worldwide. The Taliban have further angered the international community by sheltering Saudi-born terrorist Osama bin Laden....
This is a 1978-1998 chronology and and excellent overview of political history of Afghanistan (including info on administrative divisions). The focus is on recent history but there's also a brief overview of 4th - 19th century history (with hypertext to more detail). It is a touching and tragic history. We currently think of Afghanistan as a Muslim country but, in fact, Islam came to a large portion of the country barely a century ago:The Kingdom of Afghanistan and the United States: 1828-1973: [Book link updated 7/21/09; price-data on old one deleted.]...As results of first Muslim-Arab conquests, Afghanistan became a Muslim country in the late 7th century (652-664). The Kabul kingdoms battled almost one century against Muslim conquests. Central part of Afghanistan, Kafiristan ( land of unbelievers) later Nooristan (Land of light) converted to Muslim religion by Amir Abdur Rahman Khan in late 1895-1896....Afghanistan once included Pakistan and parts of India:...The first unified Afghan State was established by Ahammad Khan Durani (Ahmad Shah Baba) one of the Afghan Pashtoun tribes [the ethnic group to which the Taliban belong] in 1747 in Kandahar. This date is the date of foundation of modern Afghanistan. The boundaries of Afghan state expanded to the east to New Delhi (India) and to Merva (Today's Tajikistan) in the North and to Meshhad (Iran) and further to the West. Only Ahmad Khan invaded India 7 times in order to expand Afghan Empire to the Indian Ocean....Then there is the problem of the British, who divided Afghanistan from today's Pakistan, a former province of Afghanistan:...The modern history of Afghanistan is full of sacrifices against the British imperialism. Almost for one century Afghan people were busy fighting with the British occupants. The first Anglo-Afghan war began in 1839 when the British invaded this country in order to put Afghanistan under its colony. In 1876, the British occupied the Afghan district of Quetta at the eastern part. One of the black spot in the history of Afghanistan is the Durand Agreement signed by Amir Abdur Rahman Khan in 1893. Under this agreement the Durand line separated southern parts of Afghanistan from the today's Pakistan. This agreement has never been recognized by Afghan leaders until today because Afghans believe that the western part of Pakistan is the territory of Afghanistan. Afghanistan a few times has been at the edge of war with Pakistan (former province of Afghanistan) because of this agreement. Since the establishment of Pakistan State in 1945 as independent country, Pakistan has interfered regularly into internal affairs of Afghanistan.As I said, it's a tragic, touching, dreary history --- and getting worse.
In 1919, British Empire forced out of Afghanistan as results of Third Anglo-Afghan War during the kingdom of Amir Amanullah Khan. Afghanistan got its full political and economical Independence in August 1919 from the British. The "Golden Time" of Amir Amanullah Khan's reforms lasted from 1919 till 1929. Again under provocation and propaganda, a group of traitors of Mullah supported by British agents organized uprisings against the King Amanullah' reforms in the late 1920s. The King left the country in 1929 and the reform once again ended without results in this country....
[Added 2 September 2006]: From the University of Nebraska at Omaha comes a more personal historical overview, The Kingdom of Afghanistan and the United States: 1828-1973, a book published in 1995 by Leon B. and Leila D. J. Poullada, "a combination of memoir, personal recollection, and academic scholarship." Here is more about the book:http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+su0296)This case study of US relationships with a developing country vividly illustrates the cultural faux pas and misperceptions that affect such relationships. Ambassador Leon Poullada, a career US diplomat who served in Afghanistan as an Economic Officer, and his wife, Leila, have provided the reader with the most comprehensive analysis and commentary on the subject to date. The Poulladas' personal study provides a foundation and extraordinary value for scholars and diplomats, Afghan friends and enthusiasts alike.
This is "Afghanistan -- A Country Study" from the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Although the data here hasn't been updated since May 1989, it still gives a look at the tangled, dark history of mid-20th century Soviet/Afghan politics.
[Doesn't the boy oddly resemble a young G.W. Bush?]
(Detail -- see directly below)
http://us.news2.yimg.com/f/42/31/7m/dailynews.yahoo.com/h/p/ap/20010915/wl/1000566315pakistan_afghanistan_attacks_tor111.htmlNOTE: The following four links go directly to news photos from 13-15 September 2001 -- quotes come from their captions......
"Afghan refugees and their children leave Afghanistan at the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan in Torkham, Pakistan, Saturday, Sept. 15, 2001. Thousands of refugees fled Afghanistan on Saturday from fear that the U.S. may strike terrorist targets in Afghanistan for the attacks on the U.S. on Tuesday. Afghanistan, is believed to be harboring Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden, the key suspect in the airborne strikes on New York and Washington." (AP Photo/John McConnico)http://us.news2.yimg.com/f/42/31/7m/dailynews.yahoo.com/h/p/nm/20010915/wl/imdf15092001111908a.html
"An Afgan man cuts some wood in front of a burnt-out Soviet army APC, in the village of Malaspa, Panjshir Valley, 15 September 2001. Anti-Taliban guerrilla Ahmad Shah Masood, died in an Afghan hospital from wounds suffered in a suicide bomb attack this week by two Arabs, a spokesman said on Saturday. Masood was the main military obstacle to the Taliban goal of rule over all of Afghanistan and his fate had been unclear ever since the announcement last Sunday that he had been the target of an assassination attempt by two Arabs posing as journalists." (REUTERS/Alexander Nemenov/POOL)http://us.news2.yimg.com/f/42/31/7m/dailynews.yahoo.com/h/p/nm/20010914/wl/mdf52314.html
"An Afghan woman looks at second-hand clothes beside a road in Kabul on September 14, 2001. According to a survey many Afghans are frightened with the growing speculations and possibility of a U.S. strike on Afghanistan against the ruling Taliban and the Saudi fugitive, Osama bin Laden, following the deadly attack on American installations on Tuesday." (Sayed Salahuddin/Reuters)http://us.news2.yimg.com/f/42/31/7m/dailynews.yahoo.com/h/p/nm/20010913/ts/mdf51836.html
"Afghans buy clothes from a roadside market in Kabul on September 13, 2001. Life continues as normal in most parts of Afghanistan, but many locals voiced fear as well as concern about the possibility of a reprisal attack by the United States on Afghanistan following the deadly assaults against the U.S." (Sayed Salahuddin/Reuters)http://www.ciriello.com/index2.html: [2 September 2006: page no longer exists, but I'm keeping the annotation --
[IMAGE REMOVED 2/02 AT THE REQUEST OF THE PHOTOGRAPHER,
WHO FEARS ABUSE OF HIS WORK --
DESPITE MY DISAPPOINTMENT, HIS WORK IS REALLY SUPERB
-- please click on the link below to see what I had originally chosen for this place]
University Students: #460219 Kabul, June 1995, University Students ( pre-Taliban):
© A. Raffaele Ciriello - permission pending
Postcards From Hell © 1999-2001 (see directly below)
2 September 2006: this dedicated photographer was killed several years ago and his website no longer exists.
I have decided to restore a few of his images lest they be lost.
"Women University Students, Kabul, June 1995.
"Postcards from Hell" is an exceptional site from war/conflict photojournalist, A. Raffaele Ciriello, who covers global hotspots in the Moslem world. This is his homepage with many links to Afghanistan. Pages are a bit slow-loading but well worth the wait. His work is haunting (several examples are on my page).http://www.afghan-web.com/gallery/
This is another exceptional photo gallery from Afghanistan Online -- a wide range of content, mood, photographers (Ciriello's work is included as well -- see above).http://www.afghantravel.com/pictures.htm
This is a site of March 2000 amateur photos, mostly of landscape and buildings, not people. The thumbnails are clickable and give a good sense of Kabul as well as the difficult terrain between Kabul and Mazar Sharif.http://www.pcpafg.org/photos/
This is the Photo Gallery from Assistance Afghanistan. It loads very slowly, at least when I was trying to get through around 2:30am (PDT) -- thus, I never got beyond the first page and even that never fully loaded (I waited about 5-10 minutes). From what I could see, the photos cover the regions of Bamyan, Badakhshan, Herat, and also possibly Wardak; there may also be a "General Photos" section. The focus seems to be on people, landscape, and scenes of devastation. I did click on one thumbnail -- quality was really good but there was no caption so it wasn't clear what I was seeing. Unless you are already familiar with these regions, and/or have DSL or cable, you might want to avoid this one.
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Related Myth*ing Links Pages:
New York City, 11 September 2001
New York City, 11 September 2001: Many Voices
Letter from an Afghan-American
Letter from a Star Wars Expert:What Can We Do About Terrorism?
The Crone Papers: Notes on the Mideast
Wars, Weapons, and Lies: The Dehumanizing Impulse
Central Asia / Eurasian Portal Page
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[Note: most regions are forthcoming]Afghanistan I
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This page created with Netscape Gold 3.01
Technical assistance: William Weeks
Text and Design:
Copyright © 2001-2010 by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.
Designed during the wee hours of 15-16 September 2001;
16 September 2001, 4:25am: still under construction and not yet "officially" on line;
some 13 hours later: 16 September 2001, 5:22pm: it's now online "officially"
but it's still a work-in-progress for at least another week.
Updates: 17-21 September 2001; 22/23 September 2001;
1-2 October 2001 (annotated 3 more links); 4-5 October 2001 (annotated more links);
9-10 & 10-11 October 2001 (added & annotated more links); 12 & 13 October 2001 (ditto);
16-17 October 2001 (ditto); 18 October 2001 (ditto + split into 2 pages);
19 October 2001 (finally completed page 1);
9 February 2002 (removed 3 images at request of photographer).
2 July 2006: removed U. of Nebraska at Omaha link after I learned from a disillusioned student that their Afghan "Center"
is a means to attract funding and does not actually exist, except on paper.
2 September 2006: restored two Ciriello photos; added U. of Nebraska link to diplomat's book.
7 November 2007: added my Page 2 Afghan link near the top (I'm still keeping the bottom link from 10/01).
Updated Bear Trap link since it's no longer available as a free e-book download. No time for further links check.
22 July 2009: yesterday, I re-read everything and "amazoned" two book links so that I can include them on my new Bookstore page. Again, no time for a links check although I'm sure many are broken by now. Apologies to my readers -- if you really need to see one of the links, try the Wayback Machine, where many websites are archived.
17 September 2009: I don't think the July changes ever took effect as had to reload them tonight in order to update Nedstat/Motigo. :-(
10 March 2010, 2pm-4:15: re-located all war-focused pre- and post-9/11 data to a new 3rd page because I no longer wish to start my opening page with such dismal material. In addition to my usual Myth*ing Links header and footer templates, both the opening Afghan page and the new third one have identical 10 March 2010 statements, plus the same opening map & additional map data, plus all these bottom-of-page logs. Nothing else has been duplicated between them. To the 3rd page, I added a new image at the top depicting a soldier against map of "Af-Pak." Otherwise, no changes -- and no time for a links check (many links are probably broken, but maybe not). I'm keeping Nedstat on the 3rd page and deleting it (as of c. 4:15pm EST) from the opening page because I'm curious to see if military/"spook" hits will migrate.
20 March 2010: this is now p. 4 as I needed to split p. 2, which became too long.
Note: for broken links, try pasting the desired link into the Wayback Machine (aka Web Archive) at: